The Schilddrьse (lat. Glandula thyreoidea) belongs to the endocrine system (hormonal system) of the body. The name comes from its shield-like shape, which is often compared to a butterfly. As an endocrine (endo = inner) gland, the thyroid constantly releases hormones into the blood. In particular hypothalamus and pituitary gland exert influence on the hormone secretion of the thyroid gland.
Only between 20 and 50g weighs a healthy thyroid, which represents our smallest organ in the body. Despite this low weight, humans can not do without the hormones produced by the thyroid. thyroxine and triiodothyronine are the main regulators in the organism within the metabolic rate. An irregular synthesis of thyroid hormones can negatively impact on the body; Particularly common are under- and over-functioning of the thyroid gland. Meanwhile, modern medicine has developed highly effective drugs.
To synthesize the two thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the trace element becomes iodine benцtigt. A healthy and well-balanced diet can fully meet the needs. To prevent iodine deficiency began in the 90s with the addition of iodide to normal table salt. Whoever then ate his food automatically absorbed iodine. From then on, thyroid disorders caused by iodine deficiency decreased enormously. In Third World countries, iodine deficiency is still a big problem today.
Structure / location / anatomy of the thyroid
The thyroid (green colored) lies in the neck area centrally below the larynx. Behind it runs directly the aircourse. Via the isthmus the two tortuous lobes (Lobus dexter and Lobus sinister) are connected to each other. The lobes are stored around the anterior part of the trachea and are also fixed there via connective tissue.
Differences in thyroid shape are not uncommon, e.g. caused by natural (grow / shrink) or unnatural (e.g., iodine deficiency) alteration processes. Three arteries lead directly to the thyroid, thus ensuring a good circulation. Over the departing veins, the hormones then flow through the entire bloodstream over time.