Proteins (protein)


proteins (Synonym: EiweiЯ) are molecular chains of amino acids. Depending on the number of amino acids one speaks of peptide (one amino acid), oligopeptide (up to 10), polypeptide (from 10) or even protein (from 50). The majority of the known proteins have a length of 50 to 1000 amino acids.
Proteins are not only an important building block of ion channels and enzymes, but also of all body tissues. Put simply, protein structures hold the entire body together. At the cellular level, the microtubules, intermediary filaments and microfilaments form the cytoskeleton of the cells.
The essential amino acids histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine must be absorbed through the diet as the body can not produce them by itself. Non-essential amino acids, e.g. Glutamic acid, our organism independently synthesizes from available nutrients.
The course of the protein biosynthesis (simplified): foreign body amino acids are split by enzymes in the digestive tract, absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and transported via the bloodstream to the body cells. At the ribosomes arise - according to the stored base sequence in the DNA - during the translation of the body's own amino acid chains and thus proteins.

What is protein in our body?

enzymes: are the most important catalysts (initiators of chemical reactions) for our organism: DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases, catalases and digestive enzymes.
collagen: most important structural protein, i.a. for ligaments, connective tissue, cartilage and tendons.
keratin: is a basic component of fingernails, toenails and hair.
membrane proteins: Membrane proteins in cell membranes control cell communication and coordinate membrane transport (mass transport through the cell membrane).
Ionenkanдle: control the membrane potential and thus form the basis for information transfer (rest potential and action potential)
Antikцrper: important protective function against foreign substances and poisons.
Reserve EiweiЯ: stored protein, the body can in case of emergency, when about the carbohydrate and fat stores are empty, convert into energy.

High protein foods

It is generally recommended that the daily diet should be between 10 and 15% protein.
In order to cover the daily protein requirement, vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods are suitable. Among the most protein-rich foods from animal sources meat, fish and eggs, For a vegetarian diet also come Dairy products (Milk, cheese, cottage cheese), Nьsse and Hьlsenfrьchte (Beans, peas, lentils, soybeans) into consideration.