Cytoplasm / cytoplasm / cytoplasm
The cytoplasm (other spelling: cytoplasm) or cytoplasm is a complex organic substance that occurs in both bacterial, plant, as well as animal life forms. In more highly developed organisms such as humans, the cytoplasm consists of the cytosol (liquid substance), the cytoskeleton (space-stabilizing proteins) and the cell organelles (mitochondria, nucleus, etc.) present therein. This gel-like, slightly viscous mass fills the interior of each cell. However, the consistency of the cytoplasm does not always have to be gelatinous. In order to facilitate an improved movement of the substances and organelles embedded in the cytoplasm, the state of the gel may also change so that a more fluid substance is formed in the short term.
The cytoplasm spreads within the cell wall (in plant and bacterial cells) or the cell membrane (in animal and human cells) and contains various chemical substances. These are in dissolved form and are trapped between the stabilizing cytoskeleton.
Structure and chemical components of the cell plasma
The structure of the cell plasma includes, as already mentioned, the cellular fluid, the cytoskeleton and the cell organelles therein. Pure cell liquid, ie without organelles, is called cytosol. In contrast, the cytosol with cell organelles is also called protoplasm.
When looking at the chemical constituents of the cell plasma, the large proportion of water (about 80%) is particularly noticeable. This is followed by proteins (about 10%), amino acids and lipids (about 5%). A small amount of the ribonucleic acids RNA and DNA (about 1%) ensure the smooth functioning of the cell.
cytosol = pure cell liquid
Cell organelles = u.a. Nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, etc.
cytoskeleton = Proteins that provide for the stabilization of the cell
protoplasm = Cytosol + cell organelles
cytoplasm = Cytosol + cell organelles + cytoskeleton
Function of the cell plasma
The cytoplasm itself has no independent task to "give a content" except the volume of the cell because no air can be stored in the cells. Primarily, the cytoplasm has the task of ensuring the transport of substances within the cell body, thus serving as a medium to transport nutrients, ions and enzymes within the cell from one organelle to the next. The storage of water and nutrients is ensured by the cytoplasm.
In addition, the cytoplasm encloses independent areas within the cell. It therefore shields individual rooms from each other. These areas are also called compartments (lat. Compartiri = divide). In such areas, specific chemical reactions and biological processes take place. This compartmentalization is important because many different processes must occur within the cell, each requiring its own special reaction environment.
If the whole cell plasma is considered in terms of its function, it becomes clear that a wealth of chemical reactions take place in this substance, which are forced and regulated by catalysts or enzymes. These processes include various reduction and oxidation reactions. They help to ensure that the cell receives enough energy for its metabolism.