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The truth behind human urine and marking territory?

The truth behind human urine and marking territory?


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So some years ago, I remember watching a survival show in which the host said that human males produce a type of chemical in the urine that animals such as wolves can acknowledge as a territory marker. The host also said that women do not produce it, and therefore cannot mark territory in the same way men can.

Would this be accurate? Would the results of this change at all if the individual was a fully transitioned transgender person?


Does human urine deter foxes

It will also deter rabbits, deer, etc. This works on the principle that foxes are territorial and don’t want to enter the territories of other, more dominant mammals. Voles have a stocky body, short legs, short tails and their ears are partly hidden. Scent marking (usually with urine) is one of the number one ways foxes know which areas are free to claim as territory and which patches already belong to someone. Foxes love to chew, dig and poop all over our lawns. Most dog lovers probably have a soft spot for all canines – I know I do. Male Human Urine The theory here is that the smell of male human urine will overpower the badgers keen sense of smell and convince it this is an an area it does not want to come into. Some people swear by this natural method, while others say it’s false and a waste of time despite what you’ve heard. Dogs, coyotes and I do mark same areas. This can be quite fun for any young boys you might have at your place. The Pee Man says that Coyote urine will deter rats, deer, raccoons, groundhogs, gophers and possum. Apparently, urinating on the sites of disturbance, or at entry and exit locations, can deter the animals from entering the garden – like we might avoid using the stairwell of the local multi-storey carpark, presumably! The bobcat was the worst. That won’t deter these foxes- though it’s probably a good idea to still do that. Grey squirrels. They grow 3 to 5 inches long and weigh 1 to 2 oz. Spray the boundaries with human male urine. 4) Mothballs and Ammonia: Despite being claimed as effective, mothballs and ammonia might not be useful in keeping woodchucks away. Wolf Urine 12oz ScentTag Combo - 1 Pack $42.00 Wolf Urine 12oz ScentTag Combo- 2 Pack - Save $10 $74.00 Wolf Urine 12oz ScentTag Combo - 4 Pack - Save $25 $143.00 Wolf Urine 16 oz - Dispenser Combo Wolf Urine 16oz Dispenser Combo - 1 Pack $55.00 Wolf Urine 16oz Dispenser Combo- 2 Pack - Save $10 $100.00 Wolf Urine 16oz Dispenser Combo - 4 Pack - Save $25 $195.00 More prosaically, male urine – specifically the first pee of the day – is supposed to work. Male human urine distributed around a garden is guaranteed to discourage the creatures and send them elsewhere. If they are around your home, farm or chicken coops you want an effective bobcat deterrent! In the wild, the bobcat is the natural enemy of mole, and use of bobcat urine will deter moles from occupying any area where it is placed. There is a way to prevent foxes by knowing what foxes do not like. How do I get rid of foxes on my property? By Fuzzy Gerdes. The ASPECTEK Cat Predator Eye Pro Night and Day Solar Animal Repellent is a simple yet effective way to deter cats, foxes and badgers from your garden. Male human urine distributed around a garden is guaranteed to discourage the creatures and send them elsewhere. What you have to do is search out the actual den and urinate directly into it. Fox urine works best for repelling small mammals like rabbits, squirrels and cats. Human pee can deter and will put off badgers as they are very territorial. Dog urine does appear worthy of note for coyotes in part because dogs chase coyotes every chance they get. Well there’s a reason why there’s a divide on whether it works or not to keep foxes away. 0. According to his website wolf urine can be used to deter cats, feral cats, coyotes and foxes. Grey squirrels have gradually spread across the UK since they were introduced from North America in the late 19th century. Does Urine Deter Pests? Blog comments powered by … Will human urine deter foxes? This repellent works on the principle that animals are scared away when they think they are being watched and it has two flashing red lights that scare off unwanted animal visitors. Predator and prey. So after a little digging and cleaning, I learned how to get rid of foxes without killing or relocating them. These work by introducing an artificial scent mark which deter foxes. Alternatively, there are chemical fox deterrents available on the market that you can spray around your lawn and flower beds and which … does human urine repel animals . (again, early morning pungent pee) can keep animals such as cats, foxes, and rabbits away from your garden. Does urine work as a fox deterrent or not? It’s also misleading to think a coyote couldn’t hop over a 5 foot tall wall with a roller when coyotes can hop over 6ft walls. Human male urine deters foxes. Does urine work as a fox deterrent or not? If you apply these in one of the holes, they manage to dig a new tunnel and escape from the … It basically says, "this space is taken and if you cross the line there will be trouble". You might have heard an old wives tale how human urine will deter foxes, but is it true? How it works: in the animal world, if another male is marking the territory, this means he is ready to defend it with a fight. Using urine to modify coyote behavior has never been proven effective. In order to avoid a possible conflict or fight, the fox will keep clear of your garden while it believes it to be occupied by another predator. Male urine & human hair. Some people have recommended a free chemical repellent, which apparently works well to exclude badgers and foxes: human male urine. At 1 point we only had the human hair & while it worked on most foxes around here sadly it didn't work on the family of foxes next door but 1 had been feeding - they'd got so used to human contact the hair wasn't enough to keep them away. Wolf urine is used to repel moose. So what’s the truth? When human urine is fresh, it is sterile and because of this free from bacteria. This device is incredibly simple to set up, all you need to do is connect it to a garden hose. Human Urine in the Garden . One of my neighbours swears by it. It required a little help from my husband and alot of "water". Bobcat urine is good for mice, moles and voles. The scent from Scoot Fox Repellent creates an artificial ‘scentmark’, as if from another animal. Bobcat urine repels moles, mice, voles and other rodents. I begged my husband to wait until after dark and to go around the house and, well, pee. Contrary to what you might think, fresh human urine is clean and bacteria-free. Imagine cat spray times 50! Yes, human urine and human hair can be surpassingly effective in your garden as deterrents to pests and as fertilizers. If you live in an area where foxes live and you have small pets you should know the ways to keep these small but dangerous animals away from your house. And I don’t mean marking your territory around the chicken coop or run. One way to deter foxes • A SIMPLE deterrent for those plagued by foxes is to get a male person to lift and then aim. A SIMPLE deterrent for those plagued by foxes is to get a male person to lift and then aim. The #1 Way to Get Rid of Foxes for Good: Urine. Knowing what do foxes not like may help you to repel them. So getting rid of one doesn’t mean another won’t move in to take its place. Yes, human urine and human hair can be surpassingly effective in your garden as deterrents to pests and as fertilizers. Different kinds of fox repellent Foxes are the type of pest that can be actually dangerous to small pets. About Voles Voles are another type of rodent. Male urine will release this aroma that will make the foxes feel uncomfortable but this would have to be regularly repeated in your garden to keep the foxes away! The question does human urine repel mice is best answered by first looking at the science of mouse behavior. I believe this method does not affect wolves. Dilute it with water in a 1:4 ratio and use a sprayer or a water can to apply. How can I get a better deal from Verizon? Only one—a class of proteins found in urine and other secretions known as Mups, for major urinary proteins—elicited the same fear response as the whole predator scent in the mice. They also cause damage to our bins, hoses, flowers and lawns. Mice have two types of scent receptors. Apparently, the scent of human urine (again, early morning pungent pee) can keep animals such as cats, foxes, and rabbits away from your garden. Products you need: Defenders Jet Spray Repeller Motion Activated Fox Deterrent. The smell of wolf pee has been used by many owners to keep coyotes at bay – these granules are easy to spread around your yard. Mountain Lion Urine. Defenders Jet Spray Fox Repellent Buy here. Gardeners report mixed results with predator urine. It turns out that fox urine is one potent pee and very difficult to get rid of. 2) Human Urine: Some gardeners have been able to repel woodchucks in a humane way with this one. It suggests using Get Off My Garden or Scoot, but a handful of survey respondents reported using their own urine to some effect… Read more about how to deter foxes. Clearly she’s out of touch. Quick Answer: Does Verizon Charge An Activation Fee For Switching Phones? Quick Answer: What Is The Best … That depends. Bobcat Urine. Letters Share this story. At this point, the urine doesn’t contain any ammonia because the liver converted the ammonia into urea since this is less toxic of a substance while being stored inside the human body. Categories. Scoot comes in 50g sachets of powder that should be mixed with water. When approaching the issue of an urban fox coming into your garden, you must understand that to make them go away, you’re going to have to spend some time to dissuade them … Fox urine is used to repel rabbits, groundhogs, woodchucks, squirrels and chipmunks. We've even seen the fox bypass ours to get to next doors chooks. NAME AND ADDRESS SUPPLIED . A SIMPLE deterrent for those plagued by foxes is to get a male person to lift and then aim. Will human urine deter foxes? Yes, that bad! Pour male human urine in the areas where the fox sits/congregates with other foxes or where they defecate. Alternatively scatter human hair around the edge of the garden or use human urine (male’s is best) in the same way. Foxes have a great sense of smell and often use their own urine to mark their territory, telling other foxes not come near the marked property. It took approximately 8000v to send them running and screaming. Well there’s a reason why there’s a divide on whether it works or not to keep foxes away. Male human urine distributed around a garden is guaranteed to discourage the creatures and send them elsewhere. They are often called field mice or prairie mice. Posted on October 11, 2013 by superflybenito. Four years of extensive testing at current location indicates human nor dog (intact male) urine repels red foxes. Coyote and fox urine are the most commonly used for smaller mammals and deer, bobcat, wolf, bear, and mountain lion urine are also available. Foxes are territorial animals so if they are made to feel unsafe and unwelcome in their territory from a bigger “predator” they will be more unlikely to leave your garden. Tag Archives: human urine Does Human Urine Deter Foxes? Best Coyote Repellent Pee: Pee Mart Wolf Urine Granules. This hasn’t been tested by anyone I know and could just be hearsay, but it could be worth a try! Human urine gets rid of cats, foxes, rabbits etc 14-02-2009, 02:27 PM. If foxes have damaged your fence, click here. Repellent for fox that seems to work is to be periodically chased within inches of your life by fast dogs. It is only when urine is stored for more than 24 hours that it gets that familiar, unpleasant odor. Will human urine deter foxes? Foxes are fiercely territorial. The other most effective strategy is to use a sonic repellent. You might try using human hair clippings to leave “human smell” around your garden. The Science Behind Human Urine as a Raccoon Repellent. Post a comment. Used cat litter is also effective, but needs repeated application. Answer: I do not know about apple cider vinegar, but white vinegar soaked rags will keep foxes away for up to 10 days. Does Human Urine Deter Foxes? Question: Does apple cider vinegar repel foxes and wolves? The first type allows the mouse to find food and water using it’s nose, while the second is designed to help the mouse identify and avoid it’s natural predators. Notice how Fox says get your urine from animal rehabbers, not a fur farm. I t’s one of those questions that almost seems like an old wives tale. So in theory, yes, human urine does keep raccoons away. 3) Fox Urine: It is less likely to work, but you can give it a try. 21 September, 2017. Coyote Urine. Some say weeing in your garden definitely works, while others say it’s rubbish. I do not recommend this deterrent method though unless you want to keep reapplying vinegar to these rags. Any young boys you might have at your place territorial and don ’ t deter these foxes- though ’. So after a little digging and cleaning, I learned how to get next! It to a garden is guaranteed to discourage the creatures and send them elsewhere cats. Red foxes a good idea to still do that been tested by anyone I know do! 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Disgusting Facts

Boiled toads were once thought to cure for rheumatism. Not salivating at the thought of ground up boiled toad? Try this: rotted mice were fed to children to cure bed wetting.

The next time you catch yourself complaining about the 21st century, take a moment to say a prayer for the poor child who peed the bed 400 years ago, and got to eat a mouse as a result. Maybe go thank you parents now. They may not have been perfect, but things could have been a lot worse.


Onychectomy (Declawing) Surgery

The below is a clinical description of the the declawing surgery taken from a leading veterinary surgical textbbook. Contrary to misleading information, declawing is not a "minor" surgery comparable to spaying and neutering procedures, it is 10, seperate, painful amputations of the distal phalanx at the joint (disjointing).

"The claw is extended by pushing up under the footpad or by grasping it with Allis tissue forceps. A scalpel blade is used to sharply dissect between the second and third phalanx over the top of the ungual crest . The distal interphalangeal joint is disarticulated (disjointed), and the deep digital flexor tendon is incised (severed). The digital footpad, is not incised. If a nail trimmer is used, the ring of the instrument is placed in the groove between the second phalanx and the ungual crest. The blade is positioned just in front of the footpad. The blade is pushed through the soft tissues over the flexor process. With the ring of the nail trimmer in position behind the ungual crest, the blade is released just slightly so that traction applied to the claw causes the flexor process to slip out and above the blade. At this point, the flexor tendon can be incised and disarticulation of the joint (disjointing) completed. Both techniques effectively remove the entire third phalanx."

(Excerpted from: Slatter D Textbook of Small Animal Surgery 2nd ed vol I, p.352 W.B. Saunders Company Philadelphia).


Contents

The Oxford English Dictionary states that the word clitoris likely has its origin in the Ancient Greek κλειτορίς , kleitoris, perhaps derived from the verb κλείειν , kleiein, "to shut". [12] Clitoris is also Greek for the word key, "indicating that the ancient anatomists considered it the key" to female sexuality. [13] [14] In addition to key, the Online Etymology Dictionary suggests other Greek candidates for the word's etymology include a noun meaning "latch" or "hook" a verb meaning "to touch or titillate lasciviously", "to tickle" (one German synonym for the clitoris is der Kitzler, "the tickler"), although this verb is more likely derived from "clitoris" and a word meaning "side of a hill", from the same root as "climax". [15] The Oxford English Dictionary also states that the shortened form "clit", the first occurrence of which was noted in the United States, has been used in print since 1958: until then, the common abbreviation was "clitty". [12]

The plural forms are clitorises in English and clitorides in Latin. The Latin genitive is clitoridis, as in "glans clitoridis". In medical and sexological literature, the clitoris is sometimes referred to as "the female penis" or pseudo-penis, [16] and the term clitoris is commonly used to refer to the glans alone [17] partially because of this, there have been various terms for the organ that have historically confused its anatomy.

Development

In mammals, sexual differentiation is determined by the sperm that carries either an X or a Y (male) chromosome. [18] The Y chromosome contains a sex-determining gene (SRY) that encodes a transcription factor for the protein TDF (testis determining factor) and triggers the creation of testosterone and anti-Müllerian hormone for the embryo's development into a male. [19] [20] This differentiation begins about eight or nine weeks after conception. [19] Some sources state that it continues until the twelfth week, [21] while others state that it is clearly evident by the thirteenth week and that the sex organs are fully developed by the sixteenth week. [22]

The clitoris develops from a phallic outgrowth in the embryo called the genital tubercle. Initially undifferentiated, the tubercle develops into either a clitoris or penis during the development of the reproductive system depending on exposure to androgens (which are primarily male hormones). The clitoris forms from the same tissues that become the glans and shaft of the penis, and this shared embryonic origin makes these two organs homologous (different versions of the same structure). [23]

If exposed to testosterone, the genital tubercle elongates to form the penis. By fusion of the urogenital folds – elongated spindle-shaped structures that contribute to the formation of the urethral groove on the belly aspect of the genital tubercle – the urogenital sinus closes completely and forms the spongy urethra, and the labioscrotal swellings unite to form the scrotum. [23] In the absence of testosterone, the genital tubercle allows for formation of the clitoris the initially rapid growth of the phallus gradually slows and the clitoris is formed. The urogenital sinus persists as the vestibule of the vagina, the two urogenital folds form the labia minora, and the labioscrotal swellings enlarge to form the labia majora, completing the female genitalia. [23] A rare condition that can develop from higher than average androgen exposure is clitoromegaly. [24]

Gross anatomy and histology

General

The clitoris contains external and internal components. It consists of the glans, the body (which is composed of two erectile structures known as the corpora cavernosa), and two crura ("legs"). It has a hood formed by the labia minora (inner lips). It also has vestibular or clitoral bulbs. The frenulum of clitoris is a frenulum on the undersurface of the glans and is created by the two medial parts of the labia minora. [25] The clitoral body may be referred to as the shaft (or internal shaft), while the length of the clitoris between the glans and the body may also be referred to as the shaft. The shaft supports the glans, and its shape can be seen and felt through the clitoral hood. [26]

Research indicates that clitoral tissue extends into the vagina's anterior wall. [27] Şenaylı et al. said that the histological evaluation of the clitoris, "especially of the corpora cavernosa, is incomplete because for many years the clitoris was considered a rudimentary and nonfunctional organ." They added that Baskin and colleagues examined the clitoris's masculinization after dissection and using imaging software after Masson chrome staining, put the serial dissected specimens together this revealed that the nerves of the clitoris surround the whole clitoral body (corpus). [28]

The clitoris, vestibular bulbs, labia minora, and urethra involve two histologically distinct types of vascular tissue (tissue related to blood vessels), the first of which is trabeculated, erectile tissue innervated by the cavernous nerves. The trabeculated tissue has a spongy appearance along with blood, it fills the large, dilated vascular spaces of the clitoris and the bulbs. Beneath the epithelium of the vascular areas is smooth muscle. [29] As indicated by Yang et al.'s research, it may also be that the urethral lumen (the inner open space or cavity of the urethra), which is surrounded by spongy tissue, has tissue that "is grossly distinct from the vascular tissue of the clitoris and bulbs, and on macroscopic observation, is paler than the dark tissue" of the clitoris and bulbs. [30] The second type of vascular tissue is non-erectile, which may consist of blood vessels that are dispersed within a fibrous matrix and have only a minimal amount of smooth muscle. [29]

Glans and body

Highly innervated, the glans exists at the tip of the clitoral body as a fibro-vascular cap [29] and is usually the size and shape of a pea, although it is sometimes much larger or smaller. The clitoral glans, or the entire clitoris, is estimated to have about 8,000 sensory nerve endings. [5] Research conflicts on whether or not the glans is composed of erectile or non-erectile tissue. Although the clitoral body becomes engorged with blood upon sexual arousal, erecting the clitoral glans, some sources describe the clitoral glans and labia minora as composed of non-erectile tissue this is especially the case for the glans. [17] [29] They state that the clitoral glans and labia minora have blood vessels that are dispersed within a fibrous matrix and have only a minimal amount of smooth muscle, [29] or that the clitoral glans is "a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure". [17]

Other descriptions of the glans assert that it is composed of erectile tissue and that erectile tissue is present within the labia minora. [31] The glans may be noted as having glandular vascular spaces that are not as prominent as those in the clitoral body, with the spaces being separated more by smooth muscle than in the body and crura. [30] Adipose tissue is absent in the labia minora, but the organ may be described as being made up of dense connective tissue, erectile tissue and elastic fibers. [31]

The clitoral body forms a wishbone-shaped structure containing the corpora cavernosa – a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue that contain most of the blood in the clitoris during clitoral erection. The two corpora forming the clitoral body are surrounded by thick fibro-elastic tunica albuginea, literally meaning "white covering", connective tissue. These corpora are separated incompletely from each other in the midline by a fibrous pectiniform septum – a comblike band of connective tissue extending between the corpora cavernosa. [28] [29]

The clitoral body extends up to several centimeters before reversing direction and branching, resulting in an inverted "V" shape that extends as a pair of crura ("legs"). [32] The crura are the proximal portions of the arms of the wishbone. Ending at the glans of the clitoris, the tip of the body bends anteriorly away from the pubis. [30] Each crus (singular form of crura) is attached to the corresponding ischial ramus – extensions of the copora beneath the descending pubic rami. [28] [29] Concealed behind the labia minora, the crura end with attachment at or just below the middle of the pubic arch. [N 1] [34] Associated are the urethral sponge, perineal sponge, a network of nerves and blood vessels, the suspensory ligament of the clitoris, muscles and the pelvic floor. [29] [35]

There is no identified correlation between the size of the clitoral glans, or clitoris as a whole, and a woman's age, height, weight, use of hormonal contraception, or being post-menopausal, although women who have given birth may have significantly larger clitoral measurements. [36] Centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm) measurements of the clitoris show variations in its size. The clitoral glans has been cited as typically varying from 2 mm to 1 cm and usually being estimated at 4 to 5 mm in both the transverse and longitudinal planes. [37]

A 1992 study concluded that the total clitoral length, including glans and body, is 16.0 ± 4.3 mm (0.63 ± 0.17 in), where 16 mm (0.63 in) is the mean and 4.3 mm (0.17 in) is the standard deviation. [38] Concerning other studies, researchers from the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Obstetric Hospital in London measured the labia and other genital structures of 50 women from the age of 18 to 50, with a mean age of 35.6., from 2003 to 2004, and the results given for the clitoral glans were 3–10 mm for the range and 5.5 [1.7] mm for the mean. [39] Other research indicates that the clitoral body can measure 5–7 centimetres (2.0–2.8 in) in length, while the clitoral body and crura together can be 10 centimetres (3.9 in) or more in length. [29]

The clitoral hood projects at the front of the labia commissure, where the edges of the labia majora (outer lips) meet at the base of the pubic mound it is partially formed by fusion of the upper part of the external folds of the labia minora (inner lips) and covers the glans and external shaft. [40] There is considerable variation in how much of the glans protrudes from the hood and how much is covered by it, ranging from completely covered to fully exposed, [38] and tissue of the labia minora also encircles the base of the glans. [41]

Bulbs

The vestibular bulbs are more closely related to the clitoris than the vestibule because of the similarity of the trabecular and erectile tissue within the clitoris and bulbs, and the absence of trabecular tissue in other genital organs, with the erectile tissue's trabecular nature allowing engorgement and expansion during sexual arousal. [29] [41] The vestibular bulbs are typically described as lying close to the crura on either side of the vaginal opening internally, they are beneath the labia majora. When engorged with blood, they cuff the vaginal opening and cause the vulva to expand outward. [29] Although a number of texts state that they surround the vaginal opening, Ginger et al. state that this does not appear to be the case and tunica albuginea does not envelop the erectile tissue of the bulbs. [29] In Yang et al.'s assessment of the bulbs' anatomy, they conclude that the bulbs "arch over the distal urethra, outlining what might be appropriately called the 'bulbar urethra' in women." [30]

Homology

The clitoris and penis are generally the same anatomical structure, although the distal portion (or opening) of the urethra is absent in the clitoris of humans and most other animals. The idea that males have clitorises was suggested in 1987 by researcher Josephine Lowndes Sevely, who theorized that the male corpora cavernosa (a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue which contain most of the blood in the penis during penile erection) are the true counterpart of the clitoris. She argued that "the male clitoris" is directly beneath the rim of the glans penis, where the frenulum of prepuce of the penis (a fold of the prepuce) is located, and proposed that this area be called the "Lownde's crown". Her theory and proposal, though acknowledged in anatomical literature, did not materialize in anatomy books. [42] Modern anatomical texts show that the clitoris displays a hood that is the equivalent of the penis's foreskin, which covers the glans. It also has a shaft that is attached to the glans. The male corpora cavernosa are homologous to the corpus cavernosum clitoridis (the female cavernosa), the bulb of penis is homologous to the vestibular bulbs beneath the labia minora, the scrotum is homologous to the labia majora, and the penile urethra and part of the skin of the penis is homologous to the labia minora. [43]

Upon anatomical study, the penis can be described as a clitoris that has been mostly pulled out of the body and grafted on top of a significantly smaller piece of spongiosum containing the urethra. [43] With regard to nerve endings, the human clitoris's estimated 8,000 or more (for its glans or clitoral body as a whole) is commonly cited as being twice as many as the nerve endings found in the human penis (for its glans or body as a whole) and as more than any other part of the human body. [5] These reports sometimes conflict with other sources on clitoral anatomy or those concerning the nerve endings in the human penis. For example, while some sources estimate that the human penis has 4,000 nerve endings, [5] other sources state that the glans or the entire penile structure have the same amount of nerve endings as the clitoral glans [44] or discuss whether the uncircumcised penis has thousands more than the circumcised penis or is generally more sensitive. [45] [46]

Some sources state that in contrast to the glans penis, the clitoral glans lacks smooth muscle within its fibrovascular cap and is thus differentiated from the erectile tissues of the clitoris and bulbs additionally, bulb size varies and may be dependent on age and estrogenization. [29] While the bulbs are considered the equivalent of the male spongiosum, they do not completely encircle the urethra. [29]

The thin corpus spongiosum of the penis runs along the underside of the penile shaft, enveloping the urethra, and expands at the end to form the glans. It partially contributes to erection, which are primarily caused by the two corpora cavernosa that comprise the bulk of the shaft like the female cavernosa, the male cavernosa soak up blood and become erect when sexually excited. [47] The male corpora cavernosa taper off internally on reaching the spongiosum head. [47] With regard to the Y-shape of the cavernosa – crown, body, and legs – the body accounts for much more of the structure in men, and the legs are stubbier typically, the cavernosa are longer and thicker in males than in females. [30] [48]

Sexual activity

General

The clitoris has an abundance of nerve endings, and is the human female's most sensitive erogenous zone and generally the primary anatomical source of human female sexual pleasure. [3] When sexually stimulated, it may incite female sexual arousal. Sexual stimulation, including arousal, may result from mental stimulation, foreplay with a sexual partner, or masturbation, and can lead to orgasm. [49] The most effective sexual stimulation of the organ is usually manually or orally (cunnilingus), which is often referred to as direct clitoral stimulation in cases involving sexual penetration, these activities may also be referred to as additional or assisted clitoral stimulation. [50]

Direct clitoral stimulation involves physical stimulation to the external anatomy of the clitoris – glans, hood, and the external shaft. [51] Stimulation of the labia minora (inner lips), due to its external connection with the glans and hood, may have the same effect as direct clitoral stimulation. [52] Though these areas may also receive indirect physical stimulation during sexual activity, such as when in friction with the labia majora (outer lips), [53] indirect clitoral stimulation is more commonly attributed to penile-vaginal penetration. [54] [55] Penile-anal penetration may also indirectly stimulate the clitoris by the shared sensory nerves (especially the pudendal nerve, which gives off the inferior anal nerves and divides into two terminal branches: the perineal nerve and the dorsal nerve of the clitoris). [56]

Due to the glans's high sensitivity, direct stimulation to it is not always pleasurable instead, direct stimulation to the hood or the areas near the glans is often more pleasurable, with the majority of women preferring to use the hood to stimulate the glans, or to have the glans rolled between the lips of the labia, for indirect touch. [57] It is also common for women to enjoy the shaft of the clitoris being softly caressed in concert with occasional circling of the clitoral glans. This might be with or without manual penetration of the vagina, while other women enjoy having the entire area of the vulva caressed. [58] As opposed to use of dry fingers, stimulation from fingers that have been well-lubricated, either by vaginal lubrication or a personal lubricant, is usually more pleasurable for the external anatomy of the clitoris. [59] [60]

As the clitoris's external location does not allow for direct stimulation by sexual penetration, any external clitoral stimulation while in the missionary position usually results from the pubic bone area, the movement of the groins when in contact. As such, some couples may engage in the woman-on-top position or the coital alignment technique, a sex position combining the "riding high" variation of the missionary position with pressure-counterpressure movements performed by each partner in rhythm with sexual penetration, to maximize clitoral stimulation. [61] [62] Lesbian couples may engage in tribadism for ample clitoral stimulation or for mutual clitoral stimulation during whole-body contact. [N 2] [64] [65] Pressing the penis in a gliding or circular motion against the clitoris (intercrural sex), or stimulating it by movement against another body part, may also be practiced. [66] [67] A vibrator (such as a clitoral vibrator), dildo or other sex toy may be used. [66] [68] Other women stimulate the clitoris by use of a pillow or other inanimate object, by a jet of water from the faucet of a bathtub or shower, or by closing their legs and rocking. [69] [70] [71]

During sexual arousal, the clitoris and the whole of the genitalia engorge and change color as the erectile tissues fill with blood (vasocongestion), and the individual experiences vaginal contractions. [72] The ischiocavernosus and bulbocavernosus muscles, which insert into the corpora cavernosa, contract and compress the dorsal vein of the clitoris (the only vein that drains the blood from the spaces in the corpora cavernosa), and the arterial blood continues a steady flow and having no way to drain out, fills the venous spaces until they become turgid and engorged with blood. This is what leads to clitoral erection. [13] [73]

The clitoral glans doubles in diameter upon arousal and upon further stimulation, becomes less visible as it is covered by the swelling of tissues of the clitoral hood. [72] [74] The swelling protects the glans from direct contact, as direct contact at this stage can be more irritating than pleasurable. [74] [75] Vasocongestion eventually triggers a muscular reflex, which expels the blood that was trapped in surrounding tissues, and leads to an orgasm. [76] A short time after stimulation has stopped, especially if orgasm has been achieved, the glans becomes visible again and returns to its normal state, [77] with a few seconds (usually 5–10) to return to its normal position and 5–10 minutes to return to its original size. [N 3] [74] [79] If orgasm is not achieved, the clitoris may remain engorged for a few hours, which women often find uncomfortable. [61] Additionally, the clitoris is very sensitive after orgasm, making further stimulation initially painful for some women. [80]

Clitoral and vaginal orgasmic factors

General statistics indicate that 70–80 percent of women require direct clitoral stimulation (consistent manual, oral or other concentrated friction against the external parts of the clitoris) to reach orgasm. [N 4] [N 5] [N 6] [84] Indirect clitoral stimulation (for example, via vaginal penetration) may also be sufficient for female orgasm. [N 7] [17] [86] The area near the entrance of the vagina (the lower third) contains nearly 90 percent of the vaginal nerve endings, and there are areas in the anterior vaginal wall and between the top junction of the labia minora and the urethra that are especially sensitive, but intense sexual pleasure, including orgasm, solely from vaginal stimulation is occasional or otherwise absent because the vagina has significantly fewer nerve endings than the clitoris. [87]

Prominent debate over the quantity of vaginal nerve endings began with Alfred Kinsey. Although Sigmund Freud's theory that clitoral orgasms are a prepubertal or adolescent phenomenon and that vaginal (or G-spot) orgasms are something that only physically mature females experience had been criticized before, Kinsey was the first researcher to harshly criticize the theory. [88] [89] Through his observations of female masturbation and interviews with thousands of women, [90] Kinsey found that most of the women he observed and surveyed could not have vaginal orgasms, [91] a finding that was also supported by his knowledge of sex organ anatomy. [92] Scholar Janice M. Irvine stated that he "criticized Freud and other theorists for projecting male constructs of sexuality onto women" and "viewed the clitoris as the main center of sexual response". He considered the vagina to be "relatively unimportant" for sexual satisfaction, relaying that "few women inserted fingers or objects into their vaginas when they masturbated". Believing that vaginal orgasms are "a physiological impossibility" because the vagina has insufficient nerve endings for sexual pleasure or climax, he "concluded that satisfaction from penile penetration [is] mainly psychological or perhaps the result of referred sensation". [93]

Masters and Johnson's research, as well as Shere Hite's, generally supported Kinsey's findings about the female orgasm. [94] Masters and Johnson were the first researchers to determine that the clitoral structures surround and extend along and within the labia. They observed that both clitoral and vaginal orgasms have the same stages of physical response, and found that the majority of their subjects could only achieve clitoral orgasms, while a minority achieved vaginal orgasms. On that basis, they argued that clitoral stimulation is the source of both kinds of orgasms, [95] reasoning that the clitoris is stimulated during penetration by friction against its hood. [96] The research came at the time of the second-wave feminist movement, which inspired feminists to reject the distinction made between clitoral and vaginal orgasms. [88] [97] Feminist Anne Koedt argued that because men "have orgasms essentially by friction with the vagina" and not the clitoral area, this is why women's biology had not been properly analyzed. "Today, with extensive knowledge of anatomy, with [C. Lombard Kelly], Kinsey, and Masters and Johnson, to mention just a few sources, there is no ignorance on the subject [of the female orgasm]," she stated in her 1970 article The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm. She added, "There are, however, social reasons why this knowledge has not been popularized. We are living in a male society which has not sought change in women's role." [88]

Supporting an anatomical relationship between the clitoris and vagina is a study published in 2005, which investigated the size of the clitoris Australian urologist Helen O'Connell, described as having initiated discourse among mainstream medical professionals to refocus on and redefine the clitoris, noted a direct relationship between the legs or roots of the clitoris and the erectile tissue of the clitoral bulbs and corpora, and the distal urethra and vagina while using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. [98] [99] While some studies, using ultrasound, have found physiological evidence of the G-spot in women who report having orgasms during vaginal intercourse, [86] O'Connell argues that this interconnected relationship is the physiological explanation for the conjectured G-Spot and experience of vaginal orgasms, taking into account the stimulation of the internal parts of the clitoris during vaginal penetration. "The vaginal wall is, in fact, the clitoris," she said. "If you lift the skin off the vagina on the side walls, you get the bulbs of the clitoris – triangular, crescental masses of erectile tissue." [17] O'Connell et al., having performed dissections on the female genitals of cadavers and used photography to map the structure of nerves in the clitoris, made the assertion in 1998 that there is more erectile tissue associated with the clitoris than is generally described in anatomical textbooks and were thus already aware that the clitoris is more than just its glans. [100] They concluded that some females have more extensive clitoral tissues and nerves than others, especially having observed this in young cadavers compared to elderly ones, [100] and therefore whereas the majority of females can only achieve orgasm by direct stimulation of the external parts of the clitoris, the stimulation of the more generalized tissues of the clitoris via vaginal intercourse may be sufficient for others. [17]

French researchers Odile Buisson and Pierre Foldès reported similar findings to that of O'Connell's. In 2008, they published the first complete 3D sonography of the stimulated clitoris and republished it in 2009 with new research, demonstrating the ways in which erectile tissue of the clitoris engorges and surrounds the vagina. On the basis of their findings, they argued that women may be able to achieve vaginal orgasm via stimulation of the G-spot, because the highly innervated clitoris is pulled closely to the anterior wall of the vagina when the woman is sexually aroused and during vaginal penetration. They assert that since the front wall of the vagina is inextricably linked with the internal parts of the clitoris, stimulating the vagina without activating the clitoris may be next to impossible. In their 2009 published study, the "coronal planes during perineal contraction and finger penetration demonstrated a close relationship between the root of the clitoris and the anterior vaginal wall". Buisson and Foldès suggested "that the special sensitivity of the lower anterior vaginal wall could be explained by pressure and movement of clitoris's root during a vaginal penetration and subsequent perineal contraction". [101] [102]

Researcher Vincenzo Puppo, who, while agreeing that the clitoris is the center of female sexual pleasure and believing that there is no anatomical evidence of the vaginal orgasm, disagrees with O'Connell and other researchers' terminological and anatomical descriptions of the clitoris (such as referring to the vestibular bulbs as the "clitoral bulbs") and states that "the inner clitoris" does not exist because the penis cannot come in contact with the congregation of multiple nerves/veins situated until the angle of the clitoris, detailed by Kobelt, or with the roots of the clitoris, which do not have sensory receptors or erogenous sensitivity, during vaginal intercourse. [16] Puppo's belief contrasts the general belief among researchers that vaginal orgasms are the result of clitoral stimulation they reaffirm that clitoral tissue extends, or is at least stimulated by its bulbs, even in the area most commonly reported to be the G-spot. [103]

The G-spot being analogous to the base of the male penis has additionally been theorized, with sentiment from researcher Amichai Kilchevsky that because female fetal development is the "default" state in the absence of substantial exposure to male hormones and therefore the penis is essentially a clitoris enlarged by such hormones, there is no evolutionary reason why females would have an entity in addition to the clitoris that can produce orgasms. [104] The general difficulty of achieving orgasms vaginally, which is a predicament that is likely due to nature easing the process of child bearing by drastically reducing the number of vaginal nerve endings, [105] challenge arguments that vaginal orgasms help encourage sexual intercourse in order to facilitate reproduction. [106] [107] Supporting a distinct G-spot, however, is a study by Rutgers University, published in 2011, which was the first to map the female genitals onto the sensory portion of the brain the scans indicated that the brain registered distinct feelings between stimulating the clitoris, the cervix and the vaginal wall – where the G-spot is reported to be – when several women stimulated themselves in a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) machine. [102] [108] Barry Komisaruk, head of the research findings, stated that he feels that "the bulk of the evidence shows that the G-spot is not a particular thing" and that it is "a region, it's a convergence of many different structures". [106]

Vestigiality, adaptionist and reproductive views

Whether the clitoris is vestigial, an adaptation, or serves a reproductive function has also been debated. [109] [110] Geoffrey Miller stated that Helen Fisher, Meredith Small and Sarah Blaffer Hrdy "have viewed the clitoral orgasm as a legitimate adaptation in its own right, with major implications for female sexual behavior and sexual evolution". [111] Like Lynn Margulis and Natalie Angier, Miller believes, "The human clitoris shows no apparent signs of having evolved directly through male mate choice. It is not especially large, brightly colored, specifically shaped or selectively displayed during courtship." He contrasts this with other female species such as spider monkeys and spotted hyenas that have clitorises as long as their male counterparts. He said the human clitoris "could have evolved to be much more conspicuous if males had preferred sexual partners with larger brighter clitorises" and that "its inconspicuous design combined with its exquisite sensitivity suggests that the clitoris is important not as an object of male mate choice, but as a mechanism of female choice." [111]

While Miller stated that male scientists such as Stephen Jay Gould and Donald Symons "have viewed the female clitoral orgasm as an evolutionary side-effect of the male capacity for penile orgasm" and that they "suggested that clitoral orgasm cannot be an adaptation because it is too hard to achieve", [111] Gould acknowledged that "most female orgasms emanate from a clitoral, rather than vaginal (or some other), site" and that his nonadaptive belief "has been widely misunderstood as a denial of either the adaptive value of female orgasm in general, or even as a claim that female orgasms lack significance in some broader sense". He said that although he accepts that "clitoral orgasm plays a pleasurable and central role in female sexuality and its joys," "[a]ll these favorable attributes, however, emerge just as clearly and just as easily, whether the clitoral site of orgasm arose as a spandrel or an adaptation". He added that the "male biologists who fretted over [the adaptionist questions] simply assumed that a deeply vaginal site, nearer the region of fertilization, would offer greater selective benefit" due to their Darwinian, summum bonum beliefs about enhanced reproductive success. [112]

Similar to Gould's beliefs about adaptionist views and that "females grow nipples as adaptations for suckling, and males grow smaller unused nipples as a spandrel based upon the value of single development channels", [112] Elisabeth Lloyd suggested that there is little evidence to support an adaptionist account of female orgasm. [107] [110] Meredith L. Chivers stated that "Lloyd views female orgasm as an ontogenetic leftover women have orgasms because the urogenital neurophysiology for orgasm is so strongly selected for in males that this developmental blueprint gets expressed in females without affecting fitness" and this is similar to "males hav[ing] nipples that serve no fitness-related function." [110]

At the 2002 conference for Canadian Society of Women in Philosophy, Nancy Tuana argued that the clitoris is unnecessary in reproduction she stated that it has been ignored because of "a fear of pleasure. It is pleasure separated from reproduction. That's the fear." She reasoned that this fear causes ignorance, which veils female sexuality. [113] O'Connell stated, "It boils down to rivalry between the sexes: the idea that one sex is sexual and the other reproductive. The truth is that both are sexual and both are reproductive." She reiterated that the vestibular bulbs appear to be part of the clitoris and that the distal urethra and vagina are intimately related structures, although they are not erectile in character, forming a tissue cluster with the clitoris that appears to be the location of female sexual function and orgasm. [17] [30]


Is there any differences in urine from humans VS animals and differences in urine in different species of animals?

also what would the term you would use to refer to those differences? Biological makeup? Chemical Composition? or something else?

Yes. The differences are most noticeable due to the different chemical compositions and how dilute such things would be in the urine.

Animals like housecats, who evolved in desert climates, have much denser concentrations of waste compared to humans. You'll note that cat urine is much stronger scented than youɽ imagine for the amount of liquid released. Also notable are different levels/types of molecules used for marking territory and such.

The differences between urine even varies greatly of members of the same species (and even individual). You'll note your urine color and scent changes dramatically based on hydration level, illness, and diet on, sometimes, an hourly basis. The differences between animals of different species is even more dramatic.

An important physiological purpose of urine is to rid an organism's system of nitrogenous waste which is derived from the degradation of proteins (and sometimes nucleic acids). In terms of composition, urine varies across species. Fish and aquatic reptiles excrete nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH3), whereas many birds and "dry" habitat reptiles excrete nitrogen in the form of uric acid. Mammals excrete their nitrogenous waste in the form of urea.

Ammonia, although toxic, is highly water-soluble which allows for rapid elimination in a fish's aquatic environment. Uric acid is quite the opposite, and has a very low water solubility, which is useful for conserving water in dry environments. Urea, in mammals, is "favored" over the other alternatives because it is safer to transport than NH3 and is more water soluble than uric acid (ease of transport and elimination). Concentration is regulated by the osmoregulatory demands of the individual organism.


His website is interesting and he’s a funny guy. The guy sells Bobcat Urine, Mountain Lion Urine, Bear Urine, Wolf Urine and he sells “Pee Shots”.

Yes, “Pee Shots!” Of course, the first question that comes to mind is “How do you collect urine from a Mountain Lion?” I won’t give you the answer, you’ll have to visit his site for that, but this is his prelude to the answer

“If I had a nickel for every time I’ve been asked that question I’d have packed the bags, gotten into the limo and headed for the airport a long time ago.”

Like I said, his website is pretty entertaining. It’s called http://predatorpee.com.


Product details

  • ASIN &rlm : &lrm B06XKNMBNR
  • Publisher &rlm : &lrm Basic Books 1st edition (June 4, 2013)
  • Publication date &rlm : &lrm June 4, 2013
  • Language &rlm : &lrm English
  • File size &rlm : &lrm 2617 KB
  • Text-to-Speech &rlm : &lrm Enabled
  • Screen Reader &rlm : &lrm Supported
  • Enhanced typesetting &rlm : &lrm Enabled
  • X-Ray &rlm : &lrm Not Enabled
  • Word Wise &rlm : &lrm Enabled
  • Print length &rlm : &lrm 352 pages
  • Lending &rlm : &lrm Not Enabled

Never Cry Wolf: The Amazing True Story of Life Among Arctic Wolves

This is a book I both love and hate. I love it because I love wolves and this is a well-written, entertaining story about wolves. I hate it&aposs made up from start to finish, yet the tagline on the cover says, "The incredible true story of life among Arctic wolves."

Let&aposs get one thing straight: Never Cry Wolf is fiction. Made up. Fabricated. And quite a lot of it is, at least in terms of factual accuracy, horseshit. Mowat knew a lot about life in the Arctic, but he didn&apost know much about wolves.

Wha This is a book I both love and hate. I love it because I love wolves and this is a well-written, entertaining story about wolves. I hate it's made up from start to finish, yet the tagline on the cover says, "The incredible true story of life among Arctic wolves."

Let's get one thing straight: Never Cry Wolf is fiction. Made up. Fabricated. And quite a lot of it is, at least in terms of factual accuracy, horseshit. Mowat knew a lot about life in the Arctic, but he didn't know much about wolves.

What he knew, he admired. This was in the early 1960's, when a lot of people were bent on systematically eradicating the wolf as a species. If I remember correctly from reading a long-ago interview with him, Mowat fully intended his book to be pro-wolf propaganda. As such, it probably succeeded: it sank deep into the public consciousness of wolves, and surely helped the great turnaround of the wolf's image in the western world. Its fundamental thesis was "wolves are okay," and that badly needed saying at the time.

Trouble is, now that big truth is largely accepted, we're still stuck with all the little lies. The pendulum has swung the other way. A wolf-handler friend of mine puts it nicely: "wolves are the new dolphins" -- all too often seen as the incarnation of Nature's goodness, wisdom and beauty. Mowat helped convince two generations that wolves are sweet-natured beasts with strong family values and a natural place in the ecosystem. Unfortunately he forgot to mention that they're also damn' great bloodthirsty beasts with strong territorial and dominance drives, a propensity to roam long distances, and a large appetite for ungulate flesh. As a wolf biologist said, despairing of educating the public, "We'll never get past Never Cry Wolf!"

Never Cry Wolf has served its day. It's a fine good story, with a strong emotional plotline as the narrator gets ever more involved with the wolves, and a nice line in laconic Canadian humour, but I'll never be able to stomach it while it's marketed as "An Incredible True Story."

A recent read of Chandler Brett&aposs excellent novel A Sheltering Wilderness, the first volume of his projected Wolf Code trilogy, brought to mind this nonfiction book which I read decades ago, and which is a groundbreaking classic in the field study of wolves in the wild. My wife and I read it together, and both found it not only fascinating but enormously educational. It&aposs one of many pre-Goodreads nonfiction books I haven&apost made time to review until now and in the meantime, like most of those, A recent read of Chandler Brett's excellent novel A Sheltering Wilderness, the first volume of his projected Wolf Code trilogy, brought to mind this nonfiction book which I read decades ago, and which is a groundbreaking classic in the field study of wolves in the wild. My wife and I read it together, and both found it not only fascinating but enormously educational. It's one of many pre-Goodreads nonfiction books I haven't made time to review until now and in the meantime, like most of those, I'd slapped a three-star rating on it to indicate that I liked it. But the reflection of a review quickly convinced me that five stars are justified it would be true to say that Barb and I both really liked it, but also true that the information Mowat imparts is at times genuinely amazing.

The late Mowat (he died in 2014) was, during almost all the decades I've been alive, Canada's premiere naturalist, and the author of numerous books written to share his research with the general public. This one is one of his earliest books, and most popular (it was actually adapted in 1983 as a feature film, though from what little I've seen of the latter, it doesn't follow the book very closely), and describes his very first field research assignment, just out of college and newly employed by the Canadian government's Dominion Wildlife Service. At that time, the politically influential sport hunting lobby, whose members were concerned about diminishing kills from their caribou hunting, was convinced that predation by wolves was the cause of the decline in the caribou population, and was pressuring the government to pursue an aggressive policy of wolf eradication. Mowat was sent to the Keewatin Barren Lands of Canada's Northwest Territory (an area where gray wolves and caribou shared habitat), ostensibly to "study" wolf-caribou interaction, but really with the pretty much baldly stated goal of bringing back a report that would "prove" the hunting lobby's contention and justify the policy they were advocating.

The body of the book is a detailed account of his life that summer in the sub-arctic Canadian wild, and his close observations of the behavior and interactions of a pack of wolves whose den was quite close to his camp. If you believe the stereotypical image of wolves, handed down from ancient and medieval writers in a culture that automatically feared wolves but never bothered to study them, and reinforced by equally ignorant modern propagandists, you'll be in for some considerable surprises. Yes, they are carnivores, with everything that implies. (So, for that matter, are our pet dogs and cats --and not many humans are vegetarians, either.) But they're not the slavering, vicious monsters out to kill anything that moves depicted in popular portrayals. They never showed any aggression toward the author (even when, on one occasion, he crawled into the den with, unbeknown to him at the time, two wolves in it!), and they respected his space once he marked his territory with urine, the same way that they did. It turns out that in fact there has never been a documented case in all history of a human being attacked by a healthy wolf (rabid animals of any species, of course, are a different phenomenon). They're intelligent and playful animals, who mate for life and display highly cooperative social interactions in their packs. Oh, and that wholesale slaughter of caribou herds under the bloody fangs of ravening wolves? Doesn't happen. A wolf pack can occasionally bring down a single caribou but the individuals they're able to fell are typically the aged, sick or infirm, whose fate is sad for that individual but leaves more grazing for the healthy members of the herd. (The First Nations saying about the subject is that "Wolves make the caribou strong," rather than the reverse.) The animal that furnishes the staple bulk of their diet is actually the field mouse, so they're rather helpful to humans in terms of vermin control. (Mowat field tested that diet on himself, to prove that it could sustain a large mammal in good condition, and developed several recipes in that successful experiment he shares the one for souris a la creme --creamed mice-- here, but Barb and I didn't try it. :-) ) It also turns out that the decline in the caribou population was mainly driven by illegal hunting at the hands of humans.

One of the most intriguing discoveries Mowat details here grew out of his interactions with the local Inuit people, especially Ootek, who became a friend. Ootek was the son of a shaman and a minor shaman himself, and something of an expert on wolves --as a five-year-old child, he'd been deliberately left for 24 hours with a pack of wolves the pups had played with him and the adults sniffed him but didn't harm him--and the author eventually discovered that his friend believed the wolves could verbally communicate factual information to each other by their howls, barks, etc. Not only that, but Ootek could actually understand a good deal of this language himself. (This belief was also not unique to Ootek it was quite common among the area's natives.) Mowat's reaction to this was as skeptical as yours probably is, and as mine was --until there were incidents, recorded in the book, that convinced both the author and I that what Ootek claimed is the sober truth. To my knowledge, this discovery has never been seriously followed up by other researchers, and I absolutely think it should be it's the kind of thing that cries out for more to be known!

Mowat writes with a wonderfully snarky sense of humor in many places which make the book a delight to read, and never boring but he's also clearly very serious about his love for nature and the professionalism and scientific acumen with which he approached the study of wildlife, and these wolves in particular. And his tone can change in places to deadly earnest, and wrenchingly moving. As demagogic politicians and prejudiced constituencies today continue their cries to press the War on Wolves to the point of extinction, this book is if anything more timely and relevant than it was when it was first published. It opened my eyes, and I hope it will open the eyes of many more readers. . more

“We have doomed the wolf not for what it is, but for what we deliberately and mistakenly perceive it to be –the mythologized epitome of a savage ruthless killer – which is, in reality, no more than a reflected image of ourself.”
― Farley Mowat, Never Cry Wolf

One of those books that if fun to review because my feelings about it change depending on how I look at it. As a pure book of science reporting/writing, it is probably a noble failure. As a influential environmental book, it is probably a wi “We have doomed the wolf not for what it is, but for what we deliberately and mistakenly perceive it to be –the mythologized epitome of a savage ruthless killer – which is, in reality, no more than a reflected image of ourself.”
― Farley Mowat, Never Cry Wolf

One of those books that if fun to review because my feelings about it change depending on how I look at it. As a pure book of science reporting/writing, it is probably a noble failure. As a influential environmental book, it is probably a wild success.

It is controversial (STILL) and entertaining (STILL) and a piece of shit/scat and a piece of art. My kids loved it for all the wrong reasons and I probably hate parts of it for all the wrong reasons. So, yes, I'm glad I read it, but I also recognize that it wasn't perfect (sorry, not many Darwins out there). . more


To Freeze a Person Out of Your Life While Causing Great Sorrow

You will need the heart of an animal, from the butcher market, a glass jar that the heart will fit into, a red chili pepper pod, three needles, and some red wine vinegar. The species of animal is less important than you might think, as long as it fits in the jar. I have done this spell in miniature in a chicken heart with a tiny paper and a tiny fresh hot red pepper and it worked well. I have also seen it done with a pig's heart.

Begin by writing the person's name on a small piece of paper. You may use a photo of her if you wish and write the name, plus the birthdate if you have it, on the picture.

Roll her name into a tube and insert it into the red hot chili pod.

Place her rolled name in the chili pepper pod inside the animal heart and pierce the heart with three needles through it all and place it in the glass jar, then top it up with red wine vinegar.

Make a print-out of the Three of Swords tarot card shown here and tape the picture of the card around the outside of the jar, facing inward, to echo what you did to her in the jar.

Finally, wrap the jar in aluminum foil, shiny side inward, to trap her in it, and freeze it.

As with all freezer spells, be careful not to overfill the jar with liquids, because the water in the vinegar will expand as it freezes and it may crack the glass or pop the lid. Experienced freezer workers fill the jar to the shoulder and leave the lid on loose, then return, check the contents -- adding a bit more vinegar or scraping some away -- then screw the lid down tightly, and wrap the jar in the tin foil.


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