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What would happen if you took the deadliest diseases/viruses in the world and combined them in a single medium (a solution of water or a test subject)? Would the strongest virus defeat the rest or would a new deadly virus be created?
Viruses in the same cell can recombine (although they don't always do). This can happen by crossing-over of the genomic strands or reassortment of genomic segments. Therefore, you can get a new virus out of the fist two. The new one is not necessarily deadlier than the first two. If there's no recombination, the test subject will enjoy both diseases until the deadliest one kills him.
If you were to make a solution containing different viruses you would have a solution containing different viruses. Nothing would happen, they wouldn't "fight", they would just sit there. Drinking it would probably be a bad idea, but nothing would actually happen.
If you were to infect someone with different viruses then you would have given someone multiple diseases. Once again, they wouldn't fight, they would just go about their business infecting the host cells.
Now, it is possible that some sort of recombination would occur. Viruses work by inserting their genetic material (DNA or RNA depending on the virus) into the host DNA. Then, the cell's own machinery would start making copies of the virus. If a cell were infected by multiple viruses, it is possible that both would insert their genetic material into the host genome. If that were to happen, the likeliest outcome would be that the cell would simply start making copies of each of the viruses separately. It is extremely unlikely that any recombination would occur, but it is possible. In that case, assuming the viruses were similar enough, you might end up with a new virus, but there's no way of knowing if that would be more pathogenic, less pathogenic, as pathogenic as the original. Most likely it wouldn't even be viable and the combined genetic material of the two viruses would simply be inactive.
In short, viruses don't work the way you seem to think they do. They don't fight each other. They don't have anything resembling a mind. They aren't even alive by some definitions. It is not wrong to think of viruses as chemicals instead of as living things. They are incredibly simple and act following simple chemical rules. So yes, the likeliest outcome would be nothing interesting.
See viruses are made to destroy the host, not other viruses, so putting different types together really wouldn't have much an effect would it? as Manuella answer says, the host cell will simply suffer (or enjoy as he says) with both at once. Viruses don't mate so I sincerely doubt there would be a "combination". What some [evil] scientists are doing is that they take bacterium or viruses and they genetically modify them, and though this is a seriously tedious process, a bio-weapon could be created. Google bio-weapons and how they are made by governments.
Also, this would probably cost you a TON of money to do such a dangerous and complex project, and I doubt that anyone sensible would sponsor you.
Poison + poison = poison. They aren't integers to give you a result of 2poison. Viruses are a gatewat between living and non living organisms so they would barely mate and produce a more deadly virus. You might have been a fan of Umbrella Corporation (the company working as bio-weaponary making company which tests virus and takes over world) but in real life they don't work as we think they should.
Some virus would reverse the effect of the bad virus too. Thus as other answers has told you that being evil would cost you much more money than you think.
Bacterias are living viruses are both, so some would double up the disease whereas some might lessen down the effect of other virus.
Commonly associated with preterm infants, Hyaline membrane disease affects the lungs at the time of birth, thus causing respiratory distress. As a result, the lungs require a normal level of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange after birth.
What Is Apical Pleural Thickening?
The oxidative stress caused by Alzheimer's disease in the brain results in phospholipid altercations. Phospholipids are a key component of our cell membranes. These altercations compromise the cell membrane, therefore disrupting the function of the brain cells.
Global Warming 101
A: Since the Industrial Revolution, the global annual temperature has increased in total by a little more than 1 degree Celsius, or about 2 degrees Fahrenheit. Between 1880—the year that accurate recordkeeping began—and 1980, it rose on average by 0.07 degrees Celsius (0.13 degrees Fahrenheit) every 10 years. Since 1981, however, the rate of increase has more than doubled: For the last 40 years, we’ve seen the global annual temperature rise by 0.18 degrees Celsius, or 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit, per decade.
The result? A planet that has never been hotter. Nine of the 10 warmest years since 1880 have occurred since 2005—and the 5 warmest years on record have all occurred since 2015. Climate change deniers have argued that there has been a “pause” or a “slowdown” in rising global temperatures, but numerous studies, including a 2018 paper published in the journal Environmental Research Letters, have disproved this claim. The impacts of global warming are already harming people around the world.
Now climate scientists have concluded that we must limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2040 if we are to avoid a future in which everyday life around the world is marked by its worst, most devastating effects: the extreme droughts, wildfires, floods, tropical storms, and other disasters that we refer to collectively as climate change. These effects are felt by all people in one way or another but are experienced most acutely by the underprivileged, the economically marginalized, and people of color, for whom climate change is often a key driver of poverty, displacement, hunger, and social unrest.
Q: What causes global warming?
A: Global warming occurs when carbon dioxide (CO2) and other air pollutants collect in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that have bounced off the earth’s surface. Normally this radiation would escape into space, but these pollutants, which can last for years to centuries in the atmosphere, trap the heat and cause the planet to get hotter. These heat-trapping pollutants—specifically carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and synthetic fluorinated gases—are known as greenhouse gases, and their impact is called the greenhouse effect.
Though natural cycles and fluctuations have caused the earth’s climate to change several times over the last 800,000 years, our current era of global warming is directly attributable to human activity—specifically to our burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, gasoline, and natural gas, which results in the greenhouse effect. In the United States, the largest source of greenhouse gases is transportation (29 percent), followed closely by electricity production (28 percent) and industrial activity (22 percent).
Curbing dangerous climate change requires very deep cuts in emissions, as well as the use of alternatives to fossil fuels worldwide. The good news is that countries around the globe have formally committed—as part of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement—to lower their emissions by setting new standards and crafting new policies to meet or even exceed those standards. The not-so-good news is that we’re not working fast enough. To avoid the worst impacts of climate change, scientists tell us that we need to reduce global carbon emissions by as much as 40 percent by 2030. For that to happen, the global community must take immediate, concrete steps: to decarbonize electricity generation by equitably transitioning from fossil fuel–based production to renewable energy sources like wind and solar to electrify our cars and trucks and to maximize energy efficiency in our buildings, appliances, and industries.
Q: How is global warming linked to extreme weather?
A: Scientists agree that the earth’s rising temperatures are fueling longer and hotter heat waves, more frequent droughts, heavier rainfall, and more powerful hurricanes.
In 2015, for example, scientists concluded that a lengthy drought in California—the state’s worst water shortage in 1,200 years—had been intensified by 15 to 20 percent by global warming. They also said the odds of similar droughts happening in the future had roughly doubled over the past century. And in 2016, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine announced that we can now confidently attribute some extreme weather events, like heat waves, droughts, and heavy precipitation, directly to climate change.
The earth’s ocean temperatures are getting warmer, too—which means that tropical storms can pick up more energy. In other words, global warming has the ability to turn a category 3 storm into a more dangerous category 4 storm. In fact, scientists have found that the frequency of North Atlantic hurricanes has increased since the early 1980s, as has the number of storms that reach categories 4 and 5. The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season included a record-breaking 30 tropical storms, 6 major hurricanes, and 13 hurricanes altogether. With increased intensity come increased damage and death. The United States saw an unprecedented 22 weather and climate disasters that caused at least a billion dollars’ worth of damage in 2020, but 2017 was the costliest on record and among the deadliest as well: Taken together, that year's tropical storms (including Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria) caused nearly $300 billion in damage and led to more than 3,300 fatalities.
The impacts of global warming are being felt everywhere. Extreme heat waves have caused tens of thousands of deaths around the world in recent years. And in an alarming sign of events to come, Antarctica has lost nearly four trillion metric tons of ice since the 1990s. The rate of loss could speed up if we keep burning fossil fuels at our current pace, some experts say, causing sea levels to rise several meters in the next 50 to 150 years and wreaking havoc on coastal communities worldwide.
Q: What are the other effects of global warming?
A: Each year scientists learn more about the consequences of global warming, and each year we also gain new evidence of its devastating impact on people and the planet. As the heat waves, droughts, and floods associated with climate change become more frequent and more intense, communities suffer and death tolls rise. If we’re unable to reduce our emissions, scientists believe that climate change could lead to the deaths of more than 250,000 people around the globe every year and force 100 million people into poverty by 2030.
Global warming is already taking a toll on the United States. And if we aren’t able to get a handle on our emissions, here’s just a smattering of what we can look forward to:
- , early snowmelt, and severe droughts will cause more dramatic water shortages and continue to increase the risk of wildfires in the American West. will lead to even more coastal flooding on the Eastern Seaboard, especially in Florida, and in other areas such as the Gulf of Mexico.
- Forests, farms, and cities will face troublesome new pests, heat waves, heavy downpours, and increased flooding. All of these can damage or destroy agriculture and fisheries.
- Disruption of habitats such as coral reefs and alpine meadows could drive many plant and animal species to extinction.
- Allergies, asthma, and infectious disease outbreaks will become more common due to increased growth of pollen-producing ragweed, higher levels of air pollution, and the spread of conditions favorable to pathogens and mosquitoes.
Though everyone is affected by climate change, not everyone is affected equally. Indigenous people, people of color, and the economically marginalized are typically hit the hardest. Inequities built into our housing, health care, and labor systems make these communities more vulnerable to the worst impacts of climate change—even though these same communities have done the least to contribute to it.
Q: Where does the United States stand in terms of global-warming contributors?
A: In recent years, China has taken the lead in global-warming pollution, producing about 26 percent of all CO2 emissions. The United States comes in second. Despite making up just 4 percent of the world’s population, our nation produces a sobering 13 percent of all global CO2 emissions—nearly as much as the European Union and India (third and fourth place) combined. And America is still number one, by far, in cumulative emissions over the past 150 years. As a top contributor to global warming, the United States has an obligation to help propel the world to a cleaner, safer, and more equitable future. Our responsibility matters to other countries, and it should matter to us, too.
Q: Is the United States doing anything to prevent global warming?
A: We’ve started. But in order to avoid the worsening effects of climate change, we need to do a lot more—together with other countries—to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and transition to clean energy sources.
Under the administration of President Donald Trump (a man who falsely referred to global warming as a “hoax”), the United States withdrew from the Paris Climate Agreement, rolled back or eliminated dozens of clean-air protections, and opened up federally managed lands, including culturally sacred national monuments, to fossil fuel development. Although President Biden has pledged to get the country back on track, years of inaction during and before the Trump administration—and our increased understanding of global warming’s serious impacts—mean we must accelerate our efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Despite the lack of cooperation from the Trump administration, local and state governments made great strides during this period through efforts like the American Cities Climate Challenge and ongoing collaborations like the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. Meanwhile, industry and business leaders have been working with the public sector, creating and adopting new clean-energy technologies and increasing energy efficiency in buildings, appliances, and industrial processes. Today the American automotive industry is finding new ways to produce cars and trucks that are more fuel efficient and is committing itself to putting more and more zero-emission electric vehicles on the road. Developers, cities, and community advocates are coming together to make sure that new affordable housing is built with efficiency in mind, reducing energy consumption and lowering electric and heating bills for residents. And renewable energy continues to surge as the costs associated with its production and distribution keep falling. In 2020 renewable energy sources such as wind and solar provided more electricity than coal for the very first time in U.S. history.
President Biden has made action on global warming a high priority. On his first day in office, he recommitted the United States to the Paris Climate Agreement, sending the world community a strong signal that we were determined to join other nations in cutting our carbon pollution to support the shared goal of preventing the average global temperature from rising more than 1.5 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels. (Scientists say we must stay below a 2-degree increase to avoid catastrophic climate impacts.) And significantly, the president has assembled a climate team of experts and advocates who have been tasked with pursuing action both abroad and at home while furthering the cause of environmental justice and investing in nature-based solutions.
Q: Is global warming too big a problem for me to help tackle?
A: No! While we can’t win the fight without large-scale government action at the national level, we also can’t do it without the help of individuals who are willing to use their voices, hold government and industry leaders to account, and make changes in their daily habits.
Wondering how you can be a part of the fight against global warming? Reduce your own carbon footprint by taking a few easy steps: Make conserving energy a part of your daily routine and your decisions as a consumer. When you shop for new appliances like refrigerators, washers, and dryers, look for products with the government’s ENERGY STAR ® label they meet a higher standard for energy efficiency than the minimum federal requirements. When you buy a car, look for one with the highest gas mileage and lowest emissions. You can also reduce your emissions by taking public transportation or carpooling when possible.
And while new federal and state standards are a step in the right direction, much more needs to be done. Voice your support of climate-friendly and climate change preparedness policies, and tell your representatives that equitably transitioning from dirty fossil fuels to clean power should be a top priority—because it’s vital to building healthy, more secure communities.
You don’t have to go it alone, either. Movements across the country are showing how climate action can build community, be led by those on the front lines of its impacts, and create a future that’s equitable and just for all.
Periodontal (gum) disease
Periodontal disease affects the tissues that both surround and support the tooth. The disease is characterized by bleeding or swollen gums (gingivitis), pain and sometimes bad breath. In its more severe form, the gum can come away from the tooth and supporting bone, causing teeth to become loose and sometimes fall out. Severe periodontal diseases are estimated to affect nearly 10% of the global population. The main causes of periodontal disease are poor oral hygiene and tobacco use.
Why do we have fluoride in our water?
Fluoride is found naturally in soil, water, and foods. It is also produced synthetically for use in drinking water, toothpaste, mouthwashes and various chemical products.
Water authorities add fluoride to the municipal water supply, because studies have shown that adding it in areas where fluoride levels in the water are low can reduce the prevalence of tooth decay in the local population.
Tooth decay is one of the most common health problems affecting children. Many people worldwide cannot afford the cost of regular dental checks, so adding fluoride can offer savings and benefits to those who need them.
However, concerns have arisen regarding fluoride’s effect on health, including problems with bones, teeth, and neurological development.
Excessive exposure to fluoride has been linked to a number of health issues.
A fluoride content of 0.7 ppm is now considered best for dental health. A concentration that is above 4.0 ppm could be hazardous.
Exposure to high concentrations of fluoride during childhood, when teeth are developing, can result in mild dental fluorosis. There will be tiny white streaks or specks in the enamel of the tooth.
This does not affect the health of the teeth, but the discoloration may be noticeable.
Breastfeeding infants or making up formula milk with fluoride-free water can help protect small children from fluorosis.
Children below the age of 6 years should not use a mouthwash that contains fluoride. Children should be supervised when brushing their teeth to ensure they do not swallow toothpaste.
Excess exposure to fluoride can lead to a bone disease known as skeletal fluorosis. Over many years, this can result in pain and damage to bones and joints.
The bones may become hardened and less elastic, increasing the risk of fractures. If the bones thicken and bone tissue accumulates, this can contribute to impaired joint mobility.
In some cases, excess fluoride can damage the parathyroid gland. This can result in hyperparathyroidism, which involves uncontrolled secretion of parathyroid hormones.
This can result in a depletion of calcium in bone structures and higher-than-normal concentrations of calcium in the blood.
Lower calcium concentrations in bones make them more susceptible to fractures.
In 2017, a report was published suggesting that exposure to fluoride before birth could lead to poorer cognitive outcomes in the future.
The researchers measured fluoride levels in 299 women during pregnancy and in their children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. They tested cognitive ability at the ages of 4 years and between 6 and 12 years. Higher levels of fluoride were associated with lower scores on IQ tests.
In 2014, fluoride was documented as a neurotoxin that could be hazardous to child development, along with 10 other industrial chemicals, including lead, arsenic, toluene, and methylmercury.
Other health problems
According to the International Association of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT), an organization that campaigns against the use of added fluoride, it may also contribute to the following health problems:
- and other skin problems
- cardiovascular problems, including arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification, high blood pressure, myocardial damage, cardiac insufficiency, and heart failure
- reproductive issues, such as lower fertility and early puberty in girls
- thyroid dysfunction
- conditions affecting the joints and bones, such as osteoarthritis, bone cancer, and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ)
- neurological problems, possibly leading to ADHD
One review describes fluoride as an “extreme electron scavenger” with an “insatiable appetite for calcium.” The researchers call for the balance of risks and benefits to be reconsidered.
Acute, high-level exposure to fluoride can lead to:
- abdominal pain
- excessive saliva
- nausea and vomiting
- seizures and muscle spasms
This will not result from drinking tap water. It is only likely to happen in cases of accidental contamination of drinking water, due, for example to an industrial fire or explosion.
It is worth remembering that many substances are harmful in large quantities but helpful in small amounts.
Fluoride is added to many dental products.
Flouride exists in many water supplies, and it is added to drinking water in many countries.
It is also used in the following dental products:
- cements and fillings
- gels and mouthwashes
- some brands of floss
- fluoride supplements, recommended in areas where water is not fluoridated
Non-dental sources of flouride include:
- drugs containing perfluorinated compounds
- food and beverages made with water that contains fluoride
- waterproof and stain-resistant items with PFCs
Excess fluoride exposure may come from:
- public water fluoridation
- high concentrations of fluoride in natural fresh water
- fluoridated mouthrinse or toothpaste
- untested bottled water
- inappropriate use of fluoride supplements
- some foods
Not all fluoride exposure is due to adding the chemical to water and dental products.
Some geographical areas have drinking water that is naturally high in fluoride , for example, southern Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, and Africa.
Degrees of Hearing Impairment
To find out how impaired your hearing is, your doctor may order a formal hearing test also known as an audiogram. It can show the degree of your hearing loss by looking at the range of decibels -- a measure of loudness -- you can hear.
- Normal hearing is in the range of 0 to 20 decibels. People with normal hearing are able to make out sounds as faint as human breathing, which measures about 10 decibels.
- Mild hearing loss ranges from 21 to 40 decibels.
- Moderate hearing loss ranges from 41 to 55 decibels.
- Moderately severe hearing loss ranges from 56 to 70 decibels.
- Severe hearing loss is in the range of 71 to 90 decibels.
- Profound hearing loss is greater than 90 decibels. People with severe to profound hearing loss will have trouble hearing speech, although they can make out loud sounds like a truck that backfires or an airplane taking off.
These recent discoveries about the effects of stress on health shouldn’t leave you worrying. We now understand much more about effective strategies for reducing stress responses. Such beneficial strategies include:
- Maintaining a healthy social support network
- Engaging in regular physical exercise
- Getting an adequate amount of sleep each night
These approaches have important benefits for physical and mental health, and form critical building blocks for a healthy lifestyle. If you would like additional support or if you are experiencing extreme or chronic stress, a licensed psychologist can help you identify the challenges and stressors that affect your daily life and find ways to help you best cope for improving your overall physical and mental well-being.
APA gratefully acknowledges the assistance of William Shaw, PhD Susan Labott-Smith, PhD, ABPP Matthew M. Burg, PhD Camelia Hostinar, PhD Nicholas Alen, BA Miranda A.L. van Tilburg, PhD Gary G. Berntson, PhD Steven M. Tovian, PhD, ABPP, FAClinP, FAClinHP and Malina Spirito, PsyD, MEd in developing this article.
The full text of articles from APA Help Center may be reproduced and distributed for noncommercial purposes with credit given to the American Psychological Association. Any electronic reproductions must link to the original article on the APA Help Center. Any exceptions to this, including excerpting, paraphrasing or reproduction in a commercial work, must be presented in writing to the APA. Images from the APA Help Center may not be reproduced
4 Diseases Caused by a Lack of Essential Vitamins and Minerals
Companies pushing products with added vitamins and minerals can fool people into thinking that they’re eating a “healthy” food when they’re not—but it’s not like those vitamins and minerals are there for no reason. For much of human history, diseases of nutrient deficiency were the norm, and in some parts of the world, they still persist. Even into the 20th century, conditions caused by a lack of certain vitamins or minerals were endemic to North America and Europe. Artificially added nutrients may not make a food “healthy,” but they do stave off several debilitating, and sometimes fatal, diseases of malnutrition. Here are a few of those maladies.
The disease of pirates: the grey-death. Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C, whose chemical name, ascorbic acid, is derived from the Latin term for scurvy, scorbutus. Even though the disease was known since ancient times (described by Hippocrates around 400 BCE), it was not a scourge to those who were largely land-bound. Even though its causes were unknown, many cultures realized that eating certain herbs could reverse the symptoms, and as long as there was access to fresh food, it was generally kept under control.
Scurvy didn’t become a significant problem until the Age of Discovery (beginning in the 15th century), when people at sea were not able to access that much-needed fresh food for months at a time. Preserved meats and carbohydrates contained no vitamin C, and unlike most animals, the human body is not able to create vitamin C on its own.
The early symptoms of scurvy include spongy gums, pain in the joints, and blood spots appearing under the skin. As the disease progressed, the teeth would become loose, extreme halitosis (bad breath) would develop, the afflicted would become too weak to walk or work, be in too much pain to eat, and would die “mid-sentence,” often from a burst blood vessel. Many of the early explorers lost great numbers of men to scurvy: Vasco de Gama lost 116 out of 170 men in 1499, and in 1520, Magellan lost 208 out of 230. A few deaths were attributable to other causes, but the vast majority were due to scurvy.
Despite not being able to pinpoint the exact cause of scurvy, in the 18th century, naval physician James Lind was able to prove, in what’s considered to be the first controlled scientific experiment, that scurvy could be prevented (and cured) by incorporating citrus fruits such as limes and oranges into the diet of sailors. Although his findings weren’t widely accepted at first, the British Navy eventually began issuing standard rations of lemon juice, and later, limes, to their sailors—which gave rise to the term “limey” in reference to the British.
These days, scurvy is an extremely rare condition, almost exclusively caused by someone eating a completely unvaried diet. In most cases, high levels of oral supplementation of vitamin C are enough to reverse the condition in a matter of weeks, and death by scurvy is almost unheard of.
This condition is brought on by a lack of vitamin D, which causes the body to be unable to absorb or deposit calcium. Less commonly, it can also be caused by a lack of calcium or phosphorus, but vitamin D deficiency is by far the most common cause. Unlike vitamin C, the human body is able to produce vitamin D, but only if it has the metabolic precursors available to it.
When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light (such as from the sun), cholesterol in the skin reacts and forms cholecalciferol, which is then processed in the liver and kidneys to create the active form of vitamin D. Even with a nominally healthy diet, without enough sun exposure, the body can’t produce the vitamin D precursors on its own. This is actually re-emerging as a health concern among some increasingly-indoor groups of people, and is one of the few hypovitaminosis (lack of vitamin) conditions not considered to be a “disease of the past.” Luckily, when the deficiency is recognized, cholecalciferol can be directly taken as a vitamin supplement or acquired from eating organ meats and oils, such as cod liver oil, allowing the body to resume producing vitamin D.
Rickets is a condition of children, as the deficiency’s most severe effects are on developing bones in adults, “bone-softening,” or osteomalacia, can be caused by the same vitamin deficiency. But in adults, it both takes significantly longer to develop and tends to cause tip-off signs that something is wrong before bone warping sets in, such as extreme pain in the bones, and unexplained muscle weakness. In children, especially those that don’t or can’t receive regular check-ups, deformity and debilitation by the deficiency is often only noticed after significant damage has been done to their developing skeletons.
The most telling symptoms of rickets are at the epiphyses (growth plates) of bones: The body is unable to lengthen bones by depositing calcium, and ends up with bones that flare outward in a “cupping” appearance. This leads to costochondral swelling, or what’s known as the “rachitic rosary” along the ribcage of the child, as well as widened wrists and “thick” joints. Before widened wrists or rachitic rosary appears, the softening of the skull bones can lead to “Caput Quadratum”—a square-headed appearance, and often the first sign of skeletal growth problems. If left untreated, rickets also can cause an extremely curved back, stunted growth, and frequent fractures—all of which can lead to permanent and debilitating deformity.
This condition is largely confined to Asia, especially in countries where boiled rice is a staple. The Sinhalese term “beri-beri” means, “I cannot, I cannot,” and derives from the inability to perform even the simplest of tasks once the polyneuritis (nerve inflammation) caused by the deficiency of vitamin B1 (thiamine) has permanently damaged the neurons, when the condition has progressed to the end-stage.
Although beriberi was known to exist in rice-eating countries several centuries back, its prevalence boomed with the introduction of steam-driven rice-polishing mills from Europe. The superior taste of the milled white rice led many locals to abandon the local (unpolished) brown rice, and in doing so, abandon their primary source of thiamine. From the 1860s to the turn of the 20th century, people whose plant consumption was limited to the polished white rice would often come down with weakness, pain, weight loss, difficulty walking, and emotional disturbances. Beriberi became one of the leading causes of mortality in the region.
In the 1880s, a doctor named Christiaan Eijkman began researching the causes of this epidemic at a laboratory in the Dutch East Indies (now Jakarta, Indonesia), and initially believed that the condition was caused by a bacterial infection. However, after years of study, he came to the conclusion that “white rice is poisonous.” He discovered this by feeding a group of chickens solely white rice, and another group unpolished brown rice. The chickens that ate the white rice came down with beriberi-like symptoms, while the others stayed healthy. Eijkman also discovered that when the chickens fed white rice were subsequently fed brown rice, they recovered from their illness! Later dietary testing on prisoners confirmed his results. Even though he didn’t know the cause of the condition, Eijkman proved that white rice was the culprit, and shared the 1929 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery.
Beriberi is occasionally seen in the modern world, but its primary cause is chronic alcoholism—the poor diets of some chronic alcoholics, combined with the decreased absorption of what thiamine is consumed, leads to symptoms that unfortunately are sometimes left undiagnosed until it’s too late. Recently, beriberi was also seen in Haitian prisons when the prison system began buying imported polished rice from the United States, and stopped feeding their inmates the local brown rice.
What causes blistering of the skin in the sun, pale skin, a craving for raw meat, blood dripping from the mouth, aggression, and insanity? If you answered “vampirism,” you’re close—the myth of the vampire may have its roots in the condition known as “pellagra.”
Pellagra is caused by a lack of vitamin B3 (niacin). First identified and commonly diagnosed in the Asturian Empire (now Northern Spain), it was originally called “Asturian leprosy.” However, the condition was seen throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, wherever a large percentage of food energy was derived from corn, and fresh meat was not available. The area of highest prevalence was Northern Italy, where Francesco Frapoli of Milan called it “pelle agra,” meaning “sour skin.”
It was initially believed that either the corn itself, or some insect associated with corn, was causing pellagra. This belief was reinforced when much of France eliminated corn as a food staple and virtually eradicated the condition. Between the era that corn was introduced to Europe (the early 16th century) and the late 19th century, pellagra was found almost everywhere that poor people subsisted on cornmeal and little else.
Around the turn of the 20th century, people began to notice that despite subsisting on just as much corn as poor Europeans, poor Mesoamerican natives didn’t come down with the condition. It was eventually discovered that this was because the traditional processing of corn in the Americas involved “nixtamalization,” in which the kernels were soaked in limewater before hulling them. The alkali solution freed up the niacin that was present in the grain, but previously inaccessible.
Despite the extensive work of Dr. Joseph Goldberger in the 1910s and 1920s, which proved that pellagra wasn’t caused by a germ but by a dietary deficiency, the condition was occurring in epidemic proportions in the rural Southern US until the 1940s.
Today, pellagra is most common in the poorest regions of the world, especially places that rely upon food aid programs. Some countries still ship unfortified cornmeal rather than corn masa (nixtamalized corn) or fortified cornmeal to developing countries or to their own impoverished populations. China, parts of Africa, Indonesia, and North Korea all have endemic pellagra among their lowest classes.
The discovery of important vitamins and how to produce them has been so significant to human health that many of those who were integral to the discoveries have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine more than 10 Nobel Prizes have been divided among almost 20 eminent scientists for the discovery or isolation of vitamins A, B1, B12, C, D, E, and K. Over the second half of the 20th century, after the beginning of widespread supplementation to everyday food items, the incidences of the conditions covered here went down dramatically across much of the world.
Of course, the minerals essential to the human body play similarly important roles in maintaining health. However, humans have not historically had a widespread significant problem acquiring these nutrients, as most plants absorb many minerals from the soil. With the increased processing of our food throughout the 20th century, however, some of these minerals have been lost, and have had to be re-added to the average Western diet through supplementation. In the rest of the world, displacement due to war, and unfortified food from aid programs, has left survivors with enough calories, but not enough nutrients. Supplementation of assistance food and local fortification of salt and flour is beginning to help give displaced people (especially displaced children) a new chance at life without these and other nutritional diseases.
In the developed world, you won’t be the healthiest bloke on the block if you eat nothing but breakfast cereal and cartons of juice—but the food industry has ensured that you at least won’t die of malnutrition. Even people with healthy diets benefit from the supplementation of vitamins and minerals in common foodstuffs, and adding the nutrients costs next to nothing. Doctors and nutritionists still agree that the healthiest way to acquire your necessary vitamins and minerals is by eating a balanced diet and spending time outdoors each day, but in the course of modern life, that’s not always possible, and if people are going to eat poorly either way, we may as well keep them from dropping dead of scurvy!
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約1100の漢字語と字形イラストで「げんき1」「げんき2」の漢字317字の読みと形をカンタン学習。「kanji look and learn」のイラストを使い、わかりやすく覚えやすいカード形式の漢字学習アプリです。 → 学生に配布できるpdfファイルはこちらから みんなの日本語のオリジナルイラスト絵カードを公開。 「みんなの日本語」に準拠したオリジナルイラスト絵カードをフリーでダウンロードできます。また有償のAll in Oneイラスト絵カードは、これだけで「みんなの日本語」を教えることができます。 1～25課 26～50課 2017年4月、サイトをリニューアルしました。 新サイト：日本語教師のN1et 教案ページ 授業のコツ 教案や一覧はみんなの日本語2版対応(情報量は倍以上に)、ブログページの新設など様々な面で改良しました。- みんなの日本語初級Ⅰ 第2版 翻訳・文法解説 インドネシア語版 『みんなの日本語初級Ⅰ第2版本冊』に準拠した翻訳・文法解説書です。『第2版本冊』にあわせ、語彙や翻訳を一部差し替えました。 書籍 かどうか迷っている可能性がある。日本語を学んでいるタイ人の学生はみんな日本 語の敬語を勉強している時、どれをいつ使えばいいのだろうかとよく考え込む。そ こで、本研究では日本語の敬語をよく理解するために、タイ語の敬語と比べながら 「みんなの教材サイト」は、日本語教師のためのユーザー登録制のウェブサイトです。「みんなの教材サイト」では、さまざまな素材やアイディアが、教室活動のアイディア、読解、イラスト、写真、動画、文法解説、教授法・授業のアイディア、授業案のカテゴリーに分類されており、これら . みんなの日本語・初級Ⅰ【文型と語彙リスト】(minna no nihongo vocabulary list PDF) 2018.03.05 2019.01 【日本語の教え方】みんなの日本語・第1課：教案＆イラスト（初心者向け！ 本当に「使える」日本語教材を提供。日本語教師と日本語学習者のお助けサイト。日本語能力試験対策(JLPT)の文法問題や日本語例文を検索！さらに、みんなの日本語のプリント教材の無料ダウンロードもできます。日本語会話の練習がweb上で可能。日本語を教える人も日本語を学ぶ人も必見です 1．会議室に テーブルが 7つ あります。 2．わたしは 日本に 1年 います。 会話：これ、お願いします 第12課 1．きのうは 雨でした。 2．きのうは 寒かったです。 3．北海道は 九州より 大きいです。 日本語教育のためのイラスト教材. 今まで描いてきたイラスト教材をフリーで公開しまーす。 使えるのがあったら使って . Free絵カード 「みんなの日本語」準拠ですから、語彙の心配もなく、ダウンロードしてすぐ使えます。 実際にレッスンで使いながら修正し制作したものなので、市販の教材よりは多少なりとも使いやすいと思っています。 難民事業本部では、日本で生活する難民定住者（インドシナ難民及び 条約難民並びにそれらの家族、第三国定住難民等）の方々を対象とした 定住支援事業の一環として、日本語学習を支援する事業を行っています。 PrimoPDF（プリモPDF）は、さまざまな WindowsアプリケーションからPDFを作成するフリーソフトウェアです。PrimoPDFを使用することで、Office文書、Webページなどを簡単に高品質なPDFへ変換することが可能です。 PDF-XChange Viewerとは、PDFファイルを閲覧・編集することができるフリーソフトの事です。 今回の記事では、このツールの日本語版のダウンロード・インストール手順と、使い方（テキスト追加や、ページ分割・結合・パスワード設定など）について。 気がきく人／謙譲語「お～します」 (08/30) プネストーリー／写真と音楽でインドを体験！ (08/25) 【☆虹色☆日本語教室】人気教材ベスト10♪ (08/12) 敬語インタビューシート／尊敬語 (08/12) みんなで探そう！ユニバーサル社会1日体験すごろく (07/31) みんなの日本語第1課〜50課までの教案のまとめページです。読みたい教案を選んでクリックしてください。また、ページ下にはみんなの日本語の単語一覧も品詞別に紹介しています。 1．N1はN2です 2．N1はN2じゃありません。 3．N1はN2ですか。 4．Nも 5．N1のN2 6．～さん ＊絵カードも「みんなの日本語初級Ⅰイラスト」の該当課にアップしました（2017年5月）＊ ★B-1、2． N1はN2です 有名人のPCをカラーなどで使うと、少し盛り上がれる。 アメリカの大統領、オリンピックで知名度 . みん日 1 版.