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7.3: Cellular Respiration - Biology

7.3: Cellular Respiration - Biology


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skills to develop

  • Compare and contrast the electron transport system location and function in a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell
  • Compare and contrast the differences between substrate-level and oxidative phosphorylation
  • Explain the relationship between chemiosmosis and proton motive force
  • Describe the function and location of ATP synthase in a prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cell
  • Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration

We have just discussed two pathways in glucose catabolism—glycolysis and the Krebs cycle—that generate ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation. Most ATP, however, is generated during a separate process called oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs during cellular respiration. Cellular respiration begins when electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH2—made in glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle—through a series of chemical reactions to a final inorganic electron acceptor (either oxygen in aerobic respiration or non-oxygen inorganic molecules in anaerobic respiration). These electron transfers take place on the inner part of the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells or in specialized protein complexes in the inner membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. The energy of the electrons is harvested to generate an electrochemical gradient across the membrane, which is used to make ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.

Electron Transport System

The electron transport system (ETS) is the last component involved in the process of cellular respiration; it comprises a series of membrane-associated protein complexes and associated mobile accessory electron carriers. Electron transport is a series of chemical reactions that resembles a bucket brigade in that electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed rapidly from one ETS electron carrier to the next. These carriers can pass electrons along in the ETS because of their redox potential. For a protein or chemical to accept electrons, it must have a more positive redox potential than the electron donor. Therefore, electrons move from electron carriers with more negative redox potential to those with more positive redox potential. The four major classes of electron carriers involved in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic electron transport systems are the cytochromes, flavoproteins, iron-sulfur proteins, and the quinones.

In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor (i.e., the one having the most positive redox potential) at the end of the ETS is an oxygen molecule (O2) that becomes reduced to water (H2O) by the final ETS carrier. This electron carrier, cytochrome oxidase, differs between bacterial types and can be used to differentiate closely related bacteria for diagnoses. For example, the gram-negative opportunist Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the gram-negative cholera-causing Vibrio cholerae use cytochrome c oxidase, which can be detected by the oxidase test, whereas other gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, like E. coli, are negative for this test because they produce different cytochrome oxidase types.

There are many circumstances under which aerobic respiration is not possible, including any one or more of the following:

  • The cell lacks genes encoding an appropriate cytochrome oxidase for transferring electrons to oxygen at the end of the electron transport system.
  • The cell lacks genes encoding enzymes to minimize the severely damaging effects of dangerous oxygen radicals produced during aerobic respiration, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or superoxide (O2–).(O2–).
  • The cell lacks a sufficient amount of oxygen to carry out aerobic respiration.

One possible alternative to aerobic respiration is anaerobic respiration, using an inorganic molecule other than oxygen as a final electron acceptor. There are many types of anaerobic respiration found in bacteria and archaea. Denitrifiers are important soil bacteria that use nitrate (NO3–)(NO3–) and nitrite (NO2–)(NO2–) as final electron acceptors, producing nitrogen gas (N2). Many aerobically respiring bacteria, including E. coli, switch to using nitrate as a final electron acceptor and producing nitrite when oxygen levels have been depleted.

Microbes using anaerobic respiration commonly have an intact Krebs cycle, so these organisms can access the energy of the NADH and FADH2 molecules formed. However, anaerobic respirers use altered ETS carriers encoded by their genomes, including distinct complexes for electron transfer to their final electron acceptors. Smaller electrochemical gradients are generated from these electron transfer systems, so less ATP is formed through anaerobic respiration.

Exercise (PageIndex{1})

Do both aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration use an electron transport chain?

Chemiosmosis, Proton Motive Force, and Oxidative Phosphorylation

In each transfer of an electron through the ETS, the electron loses energy, but with some transfers, the energy is stored as potential energy by using it to pump hydrogen ions (H+) across a membrane. In prokaryotic cells, H+ is pumped to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane (called the periplasmic space in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria), and in eukaryotic cells, they are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane space. There is an uneven distribution of H+ across the membrane that establishes an electrochemical gradient because H+ ions are positively charged (electrical) and there is a higher concentration (chemical) on one side of the membrane. This electrochemical gradient formed by the accumulation of H+ (also known as a proton) on one side of the membrane compared with the other is referred to as the proton motive force (PMF). Because the ions involved are H+, a pH gradient is also established, with the side of the membrane having the higher concentration of H+ being more acidic. Beyond the use of the PMF to make ATP, as discussed in this chapter, the PMF can also be used to drive other energetically unfavorable processes, including nutrient transport and flagella rotation for motility.

The potential energy of this electrochemical gradient generated by the ETS causes the H+ to diffuse across a membrane (the plasma membrane in prokaryotic cells and the inner membrane in mitochondria in eukaryotic cells). This flow of hydrogen ions across the membrane, called chemiosmosis, must occur through a channel in the membrane via a membrane-bound enzyme complex called ATP synthase (Figure (PageIndex{1})). The tendency for movement in this way is much like water accumulated on one side of a dam, moving through the dam when opened. ATP synthase (like a combination of the intake and generator of a hydroelectric dam) is a complex protein that acts as a tiny generator, turning by the force of the H+ diffusing through the enzyme, down their electrochemical gradient from where there are many mutually repelling H+ to where there are fewer H+. In prokaryotic cells, H+ flows from the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm, whereas in eukaryotic mitochondria, H+ flows from the intermembrane space to the mitochondrial matrix. The turning of the parts of this molecular machine regenerates ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) by oxidative phosphorylation, a second mechanism for making ATP that harvests the potential energy stored within an electrochemical gradient.

Figure (PageIndex{1}): ATP synthase is a complex integral membrane protein through which H+ flows down an electrochemical gradient, providing the energy for ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation. (credit: modification of work by Klaus Hoffmeier)

The number of ATP molecules generated from the catabolism of glucose varies. For example, the number of hydrogen ions that the electron transport system complexes can pump through the membrane varies between different species of organisms. In aerobic respiration in mitochondria, the passage of electrons from one molecule of NADH generates enough proton motive force to make three ATP molecules by oxidative phosphorylation, whereas the passage of electrons from one molecule of FADH2 generates enough proton motive force to make only two ATP molecules. Thus, the 10 NADH molecules made per glucose during glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle carry enough energy to make 30 ATP molecules, whereas the two FADH2 molecules made per glucose during these processes provide enough energy to make four ATP molecules. Overall, the theoretical maximum yield of ATP made during the complete aerobic respiration of glucose is 38 molecules, with four being made by substrate-level phosphorylation and 34 being made by oxidative phosphorylation (Figure (PageIndex{2})). In reality, the total ATP yield is usually less, ranging from one to 34 ATP molecules, depending on whether the cell is using aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration; in eukaryotic cells, some energy is expended to transport intermediates from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria, affecting ATP yield.

Figure (PageIndex{2}) summarizes the theoretical maximum yields of ATP from various processes during the complete aerobic respiration of one glucose molecule.

Figure (PageIndex{2}): Theoretical maximum yields of ATP from various processes during the complete aerobic respiration of one glucose molecule.

Exercise (PageIndex{1})

What are the functions of the proton motive force?

Summary

  • Most ATP generated during the cellular respiration of glucose is made by oxidative phosphorylation.
  • An electron transport system (ETS) is composed of a series of membrane-associated protein complexes and associated mobile accessory electron carriers. The ETS is embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.
  • Each ETS complex has a different redox potential, and electrons move from electron carriers with more negative redox potential to those with more positive redox potential.
  • To carry out aerobic respiration, a cell requires oxygen as the final electron acceptor. A cell also needs a complete Krebs cycle, an appropriate cytochrome oxidase, and oxygen detoxification enzymes to prevent the harmful effects of oxygen radicals produced during aerobic respiration.
  • Organisms performing anaerobic respiration use alternative electron transport system carriers for the ultimate transfer of electrons to the final non-oxygen electron acceptors.
  • Microbes show great variation in the composition of their electron transport systems, which can be used for diagnostic purposes to help identify certain pathogens.
  • As electrons are passed from NADH and FADH2 through an ETS, the electron loses energy. This energy is stored through the pumping of H+ across the membrane, generating a proton motive force.
  • The energy of this proton motive force can be harnessed by allowing hydrogen ions to diffuse back through the membrane by chemiosmosis using ATP synthase. As hydrogen ions diffuse through down their electrochemical gradient, components of ATP synthase spin, making ATP from ADP and Pi by oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Aerobic respiration forms more ATP (a maximum of 34 ATP molecules) during oxidative phosphorylation than does anaerobic respiration (between one and 32 ATP molecules).

Multiple Choice

Which is the location of electron transports systems in prokaryotes?

A. the outer mitochondrial membrane
B. the cytoplasm
C. the inner mitochondrial membrane
D. the cytoplasmic membrane

D

Which is the source of the energy used to make ATP by oxidative phosphorylation?

A. oxygen
B. high-energy phosphate bonds
C. the proton motive force
D. Pi

C

A cell might perform anaerobic respiration for which of the following reasons?

A. It lacks glucose for degradation.
B. It lacks the transition reaction to convert pyruvate to acetyl-CoA.
C. It lacks Krebs cycle enzymes for processing acetyl-CoA to CO2.
D. It lacks a cytochrome oxidase for passing electrons to oxygen.

D

In prokaryotes, which of the following is true?

A. As electrons are transferred through an ETS, H+ is pumped out of the cell.
B. As electrons are transferred through an ETS, H+ is pumped into the cell.
C. As protons are transferred through an ETS, electrons are pumped out of the cell.
D. As protons are transferred through an ETS, electrons are pumped into the cell.

A

Which of the following is not an electron carrier within an electron transport system?

A. flavoprotein
B. ATP synthase
C. ubiquinone
D. cytochrome oxidase

B

Fill in the Blank

The final ETS complex used in aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted electrons to oxygen to form H2O is called ________.

cytochrome oxidase

The passage of hydrogen ions through ________ down their electrochemical gradient harnesses the energy needed for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation.

ATP synthase

True/False

All organisms that use aerobic cellular respiration have cytochrome oxidase.

True

Short Answer

What is the relationship between chemiosmosis and the proton motive force?

How does oxidative phosphorylation differ from substrate-level phosphorylation?

How does the location of ATP synthase differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Where do protons accumulate as a result of the ETS in each cell type?

Contributor

  • Nina Parker, (Shenandoah University), Mark Schneegurt (Wichita State University), Anh-Hue Thi Tu (Georgia Southwestern State University), Philip Lister (Central New Mexico Community College), and Brian M. Forster (Saint Joseph’s University) with many contributing authors. Original content via Openstax (CC BY 4.0; Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/microbiology/pages/1-introduction)


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3. Anatomy of a Cell

3.1. Common to most eukaryotes

3.1.1.1. Nucleolus in the nucleus creates ribosomes that are sent to rough endoplasmic reticulum

3.1.2.1. Created in the nucleolus and sent to the rough endoplasmic reticulum

3.1.3. Endoplasmic Reticulum

3.1.3.1.1. Rough ER are dotted with ribosomes, and proteins synthesized on the ribosomes are sent through the ER

3.1.3.2.1. These ER synthesize lipids, phospholipids, and steroids, making them a very essential part of a cell, especially in cells meant for hormone development.

3.1.3.2.2. These lack ribosomes

3.1.4.1. The Golgi apparatus puts the finishing touches on the macromolecules produced, then organizes then sends them out of the cell out to where they should go.

3.1.5.1. The mitochondria are the power sources of cells. They give them power to move, divide, and basically make it function.

3.1.5.2. A mitochondrion combines sugars from carbohydrates and mixes it with oxygen to create ATP, the main energy source for a cell to power.

3.1.6.1. Pushes cell membrane and makes it secure

3.2. Plant Cell

3.2.1.1. Turn solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose

3.2.1.2. Main parts of cells that deal with photosynthesis in the plant

3.2.2.1. The cell wall is very rigid and is the main thing in keeping a plant cell together

3.2.2.2. Found in prokaryotes as well

3.2.3.1. Central vacuole takes up at least half of the cell and serves the purpose as basically a large lysosome

3.2.3.2. The vacuole helps with intracelluar digestion

3.2.3.3. Found in animal cells too, but smaller

3.3. Bacteria Cell

3.3.1.1. Can also be found in animal cells, helps the cell move around

3.3.2.1. They help attach bacteria to surfaces so they don't fall and can spread faster

3.3.3.1. Where the DNA is held

3.3.4.1. What holds the nucleoid together

3.3.5.1. The outer wall that holds together the cell and connects the pili to the cell

3.4. Animal Cell

3.4.1.1. These are transfer vesicles much like vacuoles to plant cells and carry certain things from the ER to the Golgi apparatus


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Abstract

Molluscan shell formation is a complex energy demanding process sensitive to the shifts in seawater CaCO3 saturation due to changes in salinity and pH. We studied the effects of salinity and pH on energy demand and enzyme activities of biomineralizing cells of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the hard-shell clam (Mercenaria mercenaria). Adult animals were exposed for 14 days to high (30), intermediate (18), or low (10) salinity at either high (8.0-8.2) or low (7.8) pH. Basal metabolic cost as well as the energy cost of the biomineralization-related cellular processes were determined in isolated mantle edge cells and hemocytes. The total metabolic rates were similar in the hemocytes of the two studied species, but considerably higher in the mantle cells of C. gigas compared with those of M. mercenaria. Cellular respiration was unaffected by salinity in the clams’ cells, while in oysters’ cells the highest respiration rate was observed at intermediate salinity (18). In both studied species, low pH suppressed cellular respiration. Low pH led to an upregulation of Na + /K + ATPase activity in biomineralizing cells of oysters and clams. Activities of Ca 2+ ATPase and H + ATPase, as well as the cellular energy costs of Ca 2+ and H + transport in the biomineralizing cells were insensitive to the variation in salinity and pH in the two studied species. Variability in cellular response to low salinity and pH indicates that the disturbance of shell formation under these conditions has different underlying mechanisms in the two studied species.


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Cellular Respiration. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration.

2.6. Cell Respiration – Biology 2016

Pics: cellular respiration | Cellular respiration …. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy.

Cellular Respiration – Respiration, Anabolism and Catabolism

Spice of Lyfe: Chemical Equation Of Anaerobic Respiration …. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration.

Cellular Respiration in Plants and Why We Need to Study It …

Cellular Respiration – Graphic Education. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration.

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Cellular respiration part 1. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products.

Cellular Respiration Diagram – ABC Worksheet

Cell Respiration – Biology Online Tutorial. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration.

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cellular respiration – Students | Britannica Kids …. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products.

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Cellular Respiration. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration.

Cellular respiration – YouTube

Cellular Respiration in Plants and Why We Need to Study It …. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (atp), and then release waste products. Usually, this process uses oxygen, and is called aerobic respiration. Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create atp, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars to get energy they can use.


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Cellular respiration is a process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food.

Cellular respiration is a metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose and produces atp.

Cellular respiration is the enzymatic breakdown of glucose (c6h12o6) in the presence of oxygen.


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Chapter 5 : bioenergetics

Cellular respiration is composed of three topics:

In fact living cells require energy from outside sources. Some animals obtain energy by eating plants and some others feed on other organisms that eat plants, and plants receive energy from sunlight. we can resume, the situation:

Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat.

Photosynthesis generates O2 and organic molecules which are used in cellular respiration.

Cells use chemical energy stored in organic molecules to regenerate ATP, which powers work.

These Catabolic pathways resulting in production of ATP are exergonic (exergonic means energy is released during the process).

Cells do this by different ways.

  • Fermentation is a partial degradation of sugars that occurs in the absence of O2 .
  • Aerobic respiration is really cellular respiration: it consumes organic molecules and O2 and yields ATP.
  • Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration but consumes compounds other than O2 .

Redox reactions (oxidation and reduction) involves:

Transfer of electrons during chemical reactions and release energy stored in organic molecules.

The released energy is ultimately used to synthesize ATP.


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Watch the video: Stages of cellular respiration (May 2022).