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Does the body lose or gain energy when drinking or eating hot things compared to more neutral temperature things?
On the one hand, The body could somehow convert the heat energy into human usable energy, And on the other hand, The body heats up and needs to be cooled down, and this way it loses energy.
Gains heat; humans are not particularly well-adapted to make use of heat as an energy source. In a simple matter, if something you eat is hot when it goes in then the average temperature of the body has increased. More relevantly (and to get this more on-topic for biology), eating anything will generally increase your body temperature, as in order to digest the food your rate of metabolism will rise. Metabolism produces a lot of heat, and that's what you feel after eating, especially a big meal.
Something like cold water, however, that doesn't require a whole lot of metabolism, will cool you down. In fact, even drinking hot water might cool you down. The paper cited there claims that drinking a hot drink on a hot day will disproportionally increase your sweat response such that you actually cool down.
Energy balance and its components: implications for body weight regulation 1, 2, 3
A fundamental principle of nutrition and metabolism is that body weight change is associated with an imbalance between the energy content of food eaten and energy expended by the body to maintain life and to perform physical work. Such an energy balance framework is a potentially powerful tool for investigating the regulation of body weight. However, we need a better understanding of the components of energy balance and their interactions over various time scales to explain the natural history of conditions such as obesity and to estimate the magnitude and potential success of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, the ASN and the International Life Sciences Institute convened a panel composed of members with expertise in weight management, energy metabolism, physical activity, and behavior to review the published scientific literature and to hear presentations from other experts in these fields. The Consensus Panel met 9 May 2011 in Chicago, IL, and was charged to provide answers to the following 5 questions:
Explain energy balance and imbalance in terms of a biological system in which energy intake and energy expenditure change over time in response to the environment.
What are the interactions between the components of energy balance and how are they regulated?
What is the veracity of some of the popular beliefs related to energy balance?
What limitations do we face in the study of energy balance and its components?
What research would better inform our knowledge of energy balance and its components?
Why do people feel tired after eating?
Many people feel sleepy after eating. This can be a natural result of digestion patterns and sleep cycles.
Some types of foods and the timing of meals can also make people feel especially tired after a meal. A decrease in energy levels after eating is called postprandial somnolence.
Researchers have different theories about the cause of tiredness after eating, but they generally agree that it is a natural response and not usually a cause for concern.
Feeling tired, or having difficulty concentrating, after a meal is relatively common. A person may feel particularly tired, depending on what, when, and how much they ate.
Below, we discuss some reasons why a person might feel tired after a meal, and how to prevent it.
The type of food you eat
Share on Pinterest Meals containing both carbohydrates and protein can make a person feel tired.
Foods rich in protein and carbohydrates can make people feel sleepier than other foods.
Some researchers believe that a person feels tired after eating because their body is producing more serotonin.
Serotonin is a chemical that plays a role in regulating mood and sleep cycles.
An amino acid called tryptophan, which occurs in many protein-rich foods, helps the body produce serotonin. Carbohydrates help the body absorb tryptophan.
For these reasons, eating a meal rich in both protein and carbohydrates may make a person feel sleepy.
Tryptophan occurs in foods that are rich in protein. These include:
- soy products
Foods that contain high levels of carbohydrates include:
- white bread and crackers
- cakes, cookies, donuts, and muffins
- corn cobs
- sugar and candy
People often eat a combination of protein and carbohydrates before bed, such as cereal with milk.
How much food you eat
A person may be likelier to experience postprandial somnolence after a large meal.
People who eat larger lunches may experience more of an afternoon slump than those who eat less at midday. Eating causes blood sugar to rise, and a dip in energy may follow.
This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar
As mouth-watering as a sugar-laden sundae or icing-topped cupcake is, we should all know by now that sugar isn't exactly healthy. In fact, it may be one of the worst things you can eat (that is, if you're trying to live a long, healthy life).
One study from UC San Francisco actually found that drinking sugary drinks like soda can age your body on a cellular level as quickly as cigarettes. The way the sweet stuff impacts your body is way more complex than just causing weight gain. In fact, when you eat a ton of sugar, almost every part of your body feels the strain—and that's bad news for your health in both the short term and especially the long term.
From an initial insulin spike to upping your chances of kidney failure down the road, this is what really happens in your body when you load up on sugar.
Eating sugar creates a surge of feel-good brain chemicals dopamine and serotonin. So does using certain drugs, like cocaine. And just like a drug, your body craves more after the initial high. "You then become addicted to that feeling, so every time you eat it you want to eat more," explains Gina Sam, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Gastrointestinal Motility Center at The Mount Sinai Hospital.
"Once you eat glucose, your body releases insulin, a hormone from your pancreas," Dr. Sam explains. The insulin's job is to absorb the excess glucose in the blood and stabilize sugar levels.
Once the insulin does its job, your blood sugar drops again. Which means you've just experienced a sugar rush, and then a drastic drop, leaving you feeling drained. "That's the feeling you get when you've gone to the buffet and you've overdone it, and all you can do is lie on the couch," explains Kristen F. Gradney, R.D., Director of Nutrition and Metabolic Services Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical Center, and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Feeling sluggish all the time, or always being hungry or thirsty can all be signs you've been binging on a little too much sugar. "Your body's physiologic response is to send out enough insulin to deal with all the sugar and that can have a sluggish effect," Gradney explains. "Additionally, if you are only eating simple sugars, you will feel hungry and tired because you are not getting enough of the other nutrients to sustain your energy," like protein and fiber.
The equation is pretty simple: Excess sugar equals excess calories equals excess weight in the form of fat. Not only do high sugar foods pack a ton of calories into a small amount, but they contain almost no fiber or protein—so you often end up eating much more before you feel full. Dangerous cycle. "If you're just eating sugar, you may be gaining weight but still feeling hungry," Gradney says. She adds that you could easily gain a pound over the course of a week from eating one candy bar and one 20-ounce soda (that's 500 extra calories) each day.
Our high-sugar diets are a big part of why more than one-third of American adults are clinically obese.
When you're overweight or obese, your cells can become resistant to the normal effects of insulin (for reasons that aren't 100 percent understood), and struggle to absorb glucose from the blood to use for energy. So your pancreas goes into overdrive to produce more insulin. But despite the excess insulin trying to do its job, the cells still do not respond and accept the glucose—which ends in excess sugar floating around in your bloodstream, with nowhere else to go. Above-normal blood glucose levels is called prediabetes. When blood sugar levels reach even higher, that's type 2 diabetes.
One of the liver's functions is regulating blood sugar levels. Your cells use the glucose in your blood for energy, and your liver takes the excess and stores it in the form of glycogen. When your cells need energy later, like in between meals, the liver will release glucose back into the bloodstream.
"If you exceed this amount, it turns into fatty acids and that's when you get fat deposits in the liver," Sam explains. That can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition when your body contains more fat than it can metabolize, causing it to accumulate in the liver cells. (Sugar isn't the sole cause, but glycogen storage is a big contributor, as is any sugar-induced weight gain.) "Fatty liver can develop within a five-year period," Gradney explains. But it can happen even quicker based on your dietary habits and genetic predisposition to insulin resistance. If it progresses, it can eventually lead to liver failure down the road. Your love of soda isn't really worth that, is it?
Trying to pump blood full of sugar through blood vessels is basically like pumping sludge through a teeny tiny pipe. "The pipes will finally get tired. That's what happens with your vessels," Gradney explains. So any area relying on small blood vessels can become affected—kidneys, brain, eyes, heart. "It can lead to chronic kidney disease or kidney failure, high blood pressure, and you have an increased risk of stroke if you have high blood pressure."
In addition to slathering on fancy anti-aging serums and SPF, cutting back on sugar can help skin look younger for longer. "The collagen and elastin fibers in the skin are affected by a lot of sugar in the bloodstream," explains dermatologist Debra Jaliman, M.D. Through a process called glycation, glucose attaches to proteins in the body. This includes collagen and elastin, the proteins found in connective tissues that are responsible for keeping skin smooth and taught. Studies have shown glycation makes it harder for these proteins to repair themselves, resulting in wrinkles and other signs of aging.
"The sugar itself doesn't do any damage, but it sets off a chain of events that can," explains Jessica Emery, D.M.D., owner of Sugar Fix Dental Loft in Chicago. "We have bacteria in our mouths that feed on the sugars that we eat when this takes place it creates acids that can destroy tooth enamel. Once the tooth enamel is weakened, you're more susceptible to tooth decay."
Added sugar is packed into so many foods that youɽ never really think about (case and point: ketchup). "We encourage people to read labels and count grams of sugar," Gradney says. According to the Academy, there's no hard and fast recommendation for daily intake, she adds. Good rule of thumb: "Always choose the option that has the least amount of sugar in it. If you have juice or soda, choose water." Choose whole fruits instead of drinking the juice—the sugar content is less concentrated and the fiber helps your body break it down more effectively. And choose whole foods to naturally limit the amount of sugar in your meals. "The more you stay away from processed foods, the better off you'll be."
I just did a big definitive guide to tea, and it turns out another benefit of the stuff is that it actually speeds up digestion after eating. It beats alcohol, espresso, and everything else that people tell you helps digestion.
Right after you overeat, a 20-30 minute walk will reduce blood glucose and speed up gastric emptying—helping you process the meal much faster and reducing the feeling of fullness. Longer walks are even better and can also reduce the postprandial insulin spike. It has to be immediately after though waiting even 30 minutes will suppress the effects.
12 signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid, is when the thyroid gland produces too few hormones. Low levels of thyroid hormones can cause a wide range of signs and symptoms from changes in mental functioning to digestive issues.
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits in front of the neck. Thyroid hormones play a vital role in regulating metabolism and energy use and affect almost all of the body’s organs.
In the early stages, a person may not notice any symptoms. However, without treatment, hypothyroidism can lead to severe complications, such as infertility and heart disease.
In this article, we describe 12 common signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. We also discuss how common hypothyroidism is and when to see a doctor.
Share on Pinterest Image credit: Stephen Kelly, 2019
Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms of hypothyroidism.
Many people with the condition report feeling so exhausted that they are unable to go about their day as usual.
The fatigue occurs regardless of how much sleep a person gets or how many daytime naps they take. Treatment for hypothyroidism usually improves people’s energy levels and functioning.
Thyroid hormones help to regulate body weight, food intake, and the metabolism of fat and sugar. People with low levels of thyroid hormones can experience weight gain and an increase in body mass index (BMI).
Even mild cases of hypothyroidism may increase the risk of weight gain and obesity. People with the condition often report having a puffy face as well as excess weight around the stomach or other areas of the body.
Hypothyroidism can affect a person’s muscles and joints in numerous ways, causing:
- swelling of the joints
Research also suggests a link between thyroid disorders and rheumatoid arthritis, which is an autoimmune condition that causes painful swelling in the lining of the joints. Effective treatment for both conditions will help people manage their symptoms.
It is common for individuals with untreated hypothyroidism to experience:
These symptoms can occur because the brain requires thyroid hormones to function correctly. Research shows that low levels of thyroid hormones can cause changes in brain structure and functioning.
These brain changes can reverse once a person begins treatment.
Hypothyroidism can slow down metabolism, which can lead to a drop in core body temperature. As such, some people with low levels of thyroid hormones may feel cold all the time or have a low tolerance of the cold.
This feeling of coldness can persist, even when in a warm room or during the summer months. People with hypothyroidism often report having cold hands or feet, although they may feel that their whole body is cold.
These symptoms are not exclusive to hypothyroidism, however. Circulation problems or anemia can also cause people to feel chilly.
Digestion is another body function that can slow down due to hypothyroidism.
Studies report that an underactive thyroid can cause problems with movement through the gut and the activity of the stomach, small intestine, and colon.
These digestive changes cause some people to experience constipation.
Doctors typically define constipation as having fewer than three bowel movements a week. A person may also have hard stools, difficulty passing stool, or a feeling of being unable to empty the rectum fully.
Thyroid hormones play a vital role in removing excess cholesterol from the body via the liver. Low hormone levels mean that the liver struggles to carry out this function and blood cholesterol levels can increase.
Research suggests that up to 13 percent of individuals with high cholesterol also have an underactive thyroid. As a result, many experts recommend that doctors routinely test people with high cholesterol for hypothyroidism.
Treating the thyroid problem may help reduce cholesterol levels, even in those who do not take cholesterol-lowering drugs.
People with hypothyroidism may also have a slower heart rate, or bradycardia. Low thyroid levels can affect the heart in other ways too. These effects may include:
Bradycardia can cause weakness, dizziness, and breathing problems. Without treatment, this heart condition may result in serious complications, such as high or low blood pressure or heart failure.
Untreated hormone disorders, including thyroid problems, can contribute to hair loss. This is because thyroid hormones are essential for the growth and health of hair follicles. Hypothyroidism may cause hair loss from the:
People with thyroid problems are also more prone to developing alopecia, which is an autoimmune condition that causes hair to fall out in patches.
An underactive thyroid affects the skin in various ways and can cause symptoms, such as :
People with hypothyroidism may also develop dry, brittle, and coarse hair or dull, thin nails that break easily.
These symptoms usually clear up once people begin thyroid hormone therapy.
A goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that appears as a swelling at the base of the neck. Other goiter symptoms include:
Many thyroid problems can result in a goiter, including iodine deficiency and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, which is an autoimmune condition that damages the thyroid gland, stopping it producing enough hormones.
Other causes include underactive thyroid and, less commonly in the United States, iodine deficiency.
People with an underactive thyroid may experience heavy or irregular menstrual periods or spotting between periods.
According to the Society of Menstrual Cycle Research, hypothyroidism causes these problems because it affects other hormones that play a role in menstruation, such as by:
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, hypothyroidism affects around 4.6 percent of people aged 12 years or older in the U.S. However, most of these individuals experience only mild symptoms.
Hypothyroidism is more likely to occur in women and people over 60 years of age.
Other risk factors include:
- a personal or family history of thyroid problems
- previous thyroid surgery or radiation treatment to the neck or chest
- having been pregnant recently
- other health conditions, such as Turner syndrome, Sjögren’s syndrome, or certain autoimmune conditions
It is vital for people with unexplained fatigue or other signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism to see a doctor. Without treatment, an underactive thyroid can lead to serious complications, such as infertility, obesity, and heart disease.
A doctor can carry out a simple blood test to check a person’s thyroid hormone levels. Treatment for hypothyroidism involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones. These medications are safe and effective once a person takes the right dose.
Hypothyroidism is a relatively common condition, affecting almost 5 people out of 100 in the U.S. This condition occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones.
Because thyroid hormones are essential for the normal functioning of many different parts of the body, low levels can cause a wide variety of symptoms.
It is vital that people with these symptoms or other symptoms of hypothyroidism see their doctor for evaluation and treatment. Doctors can prescribe hormone replacement pills to treat individuals with low levels of thyroid hormones effectively.
Not Enough Recovery Time
Not including a rest day in your exercise regimen or working the same muscle group multiple days in a row prevents your body from repairing itself and making gains in strength and endurance, says Dr. Lamm.
As you age, you’re not going to be able to recover as quickly as you did when you were in your early twenties, says Dr. Lamm. He says that after 35 years of age the swiftness with which your muscle and cartilage cells bounce back into action following a heavy workout starts to slow—and you need to honor that. Sure, guys still run marathons well into their seventies, he concedes, but not everyone shares those go-getters’ genetic profiles.
You’ve probably already heard that it’s smart to take at least one day off a week. But if you feel like you’re dragging yourself through most of your workouts, you may need to tack on another day of rest to your regimen or dial back some of your exercise sessions—say, by scheduling shorter workouts or swapping in lighter routines like yoga, Pilates, or a brisk walk.
If you eat soy every day, is it bad for your thyroid?
Even though you probably don't think about your thyroid much, this small gland in your neck has a big role to play. The hormones it produces control metabolism, growth, and development. According to the Kresser Institute, some foods, including soy, may negatively affect the thyroid. That's because soy is a goitrogen, meaning it interferes with the thyroid's ability to take up the iodine it needs to make hormones.
Soy's effect on the thyroid may have other negative ripple effects in the body. As Dr. Carrie Lam, a doctor of functional medicine, told The List, "The thyroid and the adrenal glands are very interconnected once the thyroid has been overworked, it can cause the adrenal glands to be overworked."
But not everyone agrees that soy is bad for the thyroid. One meta-analysis published in Scientific Reports in 2019 concluded that, while soy may raise the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), it had no effect on two other thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine) and the change in TSH was not "relevant" for most healthy people, though it could "have a clinically significant effect" for "patients with compromised thyroid function."
What makes us thirsty?
When your body starts to run low on water, a number of changes take place: for one, the volume of your blood decreases, causing a change in blood pressure. Because the amount of salt and other minerals in your body is staying constant as the volume of liquids decreases, their relative concentration increases (the same number of particles in a smaller volume means that the particles are more concentrated). This concentration of particles in bodily fluids relative to the total amount of liquid is known as osmolality, and it needs to be kept in a narrow range to keep the cells in your body functioning properly. Your body also needs a steady supply of fluids to transport nutrients, eliminate waste, and lubricate and cushion joints. To some extent, the body can compensate for water depletion by altering heart rate and blood pressure and by tweaking kidney function to retain more water. For you, though, the most noticeable indication that your body is running low on fluids is likely the feeling of thirst, as you increasingly feel like you need to drink some water.
So how does your body know that these responses are necessary, and how are they coordinated across so many different organ systems? Scientists are still trying to uncover how this process works, but research over the past several decades indicates that a highly specialized part of the brain called the lamina terminalis is responsible for guiding many of these thirst responses (Figure 1). Brain cells within the lamina terminalis can sense when the body is running low on water and whether you’ve had anything to drink recently. When researchers manipulate this brain region , they can also drive animals to seek out or avoid water, regardless of how hydrated that animal might be.
Figure 1: Brain regions controlling thirst. The lamina terminalis (yellow) is a series of interconnected brain structures that act as a central hub to control fluid levels in the body. Some cells in the lamina terminalis are adjacent to large, fluid-filled compartments in the brain, called ventricles (blue). When the body begins to run low on water, the composition of the body’s fluids (including the fluid in the brain’s ventricles) starts to change. The lamina terminalis neurons that border the ventricles can sense changes in the ventricular fluids, giving a snapshot of whether the body has enough water. These neurons also receive messages from other parts of the brain to give an even more complete picture of the body’s water needs.
The lamina terminalis is located towards the front of the brain and occupies a prime location just below a fluid reservoir called the third ventricle. Unlike much of the rest of the brain, many cells in the lamina terminalis aren’t guarded by a blood-brain barrier. This barrier prevents many circulating factors in the blood and other fluids from interacting with cells in the brain, offering the brain protection against potentially dangerous invaders like certain bacteria, viruses, and toxins. However, the blood-brain barrier also cuts the brain off from many circulating signals that might hold useful information about the body’s overall status. Because certain cells in the lamina terminalis lie outside the blood-brain barrier, these cells can also interact with the fluid in the third ventricle to keep tabs on factors that indicate whether the body needs more or less water. In particular, these cells can monitor the fluid in the ventricle to determine its osmolality and the amount of sodium present.
When other parts of the brain detect information that’s relevant to understanding the body’s water needs, they frequently pass it along to the lamina terminalis, as well (Figure 2). In this way, the lamina terminalis also collects information about things like blood pressure, blood volume, and whether you’ve eaten recently (even before food can cause any change in circulating salt or water levels, your body tries to maintain a balance between these factors by encouraging you to drink water every time you eat). Information from the part of the brain that controls the circadian clock also gets forwarded to the lamina terminalis, encouraging animals to drink more water before sleeping to avoid becoming dehydrated during long periods of sleep. Collectively, this information gives the lamina terminalis the resources needed to make a call about whether the body needs more or less water. In turn, cells in the lamina terminalis project to many other areas of the brain, sending out their verdict about current water needs. Although scientists are still trying to figure out exactly how information from the lamina terminalis affects other brain regions, it’s clear that this output can influence an animal’s motivation to seek out water, as well as physiological factors like kidney function and heart rate (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Thirst signals and their effects. Neurons in the lamina terminalis receive many different messages about the body’s water needs. Thanks to their location next to ventricles in the brain, they can directly sense key indicators of water need like sodium levels and osmolality (the ratio of salt particles to a given amount of liquid). They also receive information about what time of day it is from another brain region, as well as cues from the mouth and kidneys. Neurons in the lamina terminalis can pool all of this information to determine whether the body needs more or less water. If it needs more, they can trigger feelings of thirst and appetite suppression. If it needs less, the brain will send signals telling you to stop drinking. The lamina terminalis also sends messages to a brain region called the hypothalamus. In turn, the hypothalamus can affect heart rate or urge the kidneys to retain more or less water.
What’s The Next Step?
If you’ve looked through this list and you recognize lots of the symptoms, what’s next? Treating Adrenal Fatigue is not as simple as just taking a pill each morning. It probably took a long time to get yourself into this position, so it will take some time to recover.
Recovering from adrenal fatigue may take months. The most important thing is giving yourself time to do it. The treatment methods mentioned above are all linked to one another and embracing all four will significantly improve your recovery time.
Worn-out adrenal glands require special nourishment through vitamins, minerals, and amino acids. They also require time to relax! This means scheduling some ‘recovery time’ into your daily routine, and switching off your ‘fight or flight’ mode.
To recover from Adrenal Fatigue and get your energy levels back to normal, you will need to follow a number of different strategies. If you don’t know where to start, check out The Adrenal Fatigue Solution. I wrote it with Dr. Eric Wood, and it contains everything you need to know about getting your energy and vitality back.Get Started
Do you find yourself constantly fatigued, and struggling to get out of bed in the mornings? Do you feel unable to cope with stressful situations? If so, you might be suffering from Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome.